Botulism what is it
Botulism refers to severe toxic infectious diseases. In this case, the nervous system is severely affected (including the spinal cord and the medulla). Many people, not knowing what it is botulism, ignore its extreme danger to human life.
Meanwhile, its causative agent is an anaerobic (capable of developing without oxygen) wand Clostridium botulinum. It is capable of producing the strongest poison in nature. Lethal dose of this poison to humans is a few thousandths of a microgram! A more toxic substance cannot exist under the laws of chemistry.
Botulism is a disease that is not transmitted from person to person. The infection spreads through the skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract. Recovery from the disease is long, depending on when the patient asked for medical help.
Causes of botulism
The causative agents of this disease - botulism clostridia - is very mobile, capable of living in the absence of oxygen and forming spores that survive even in airless space. In total, seven types of clostridia are known. In the course of its life, the wand produces the strongest toxin.
During the production of toxin gas formation is observed. This is very noticeable in the swollen cans. True, pasteurization of canned food for half an hour is capable of killing active bacteria. However, their disputes are able to withstand temperatures above one hundred degrees and for several hours, which makes it very difficult to fight the pathogen.
At home, botulism poisoning is possible in the following ways:
- poisoning home canned food;
- the use of poorly processed mushrooms, vegetables;
- garlic, as well as seasonings that can be in vegetable oil;
- homemade fish and canning, especially ram.
In some cases, botulism poisoning can contribute to the use of honey and products containing pollen.
The clinical picture of botulism
Like any infectious disease, botulism has a hidden (incubation) period. It can be several hours or even days, however, on average, it takes from 18 hours to a day from the moment of infection to the appearance of the first clinical manifestations.
The disease begins acutely, resembles food poisoning. The first signs of botulism:
However, vomiting and diarrhea are short-lived, so they do not bother the patient enough to immediately seek medical help. The dyspepsia symptoms are joined by a feeling of fullness in the abdomen, the formation of gas.
Soon symptoms of food poisoning are added, indicating that the central nervous system is affected. The most characteristic and alarming sign of this disease is the fog in front of the eyes or the feeling of the grid. Patients cannot read, as a spasm of accommodation develops (inability of the eye to adapt to work at close range). Often there is a doubling of objects.
Usually in this period, patients go to the doctor. On examination, attention is paid to the disorder of the reaction of the eye to light, and sometimes to the omission of the eyelid. The temperature, as a rule, does not rise above 38 degrees. At the same time, muscle weakness develops. The face of the patient with botulism becomes like a mask. He can not stick out his tongue, because of which there are disorders of swallowing.
Often, patients can not hold the head as a result of weakness of the neck muscles and are forced to support it. Breathing as a result of the weakness of the respiratory muscles becomes weak. In this case, the sensitivity, despite the weakness of the muscles, is fully preserved. Violated and the activity of the heart.
It is interesting that, although this poisoning is characterized as the hardest, people who have recovered from them, there is no noticeable effects of infections. Among the complications include:
- visual impairment;
- muscular tissue diseases.
Treatment of the disease is aimed at removing the toxin from the body and at eliminating the changes caused by it. The general scheme of treatment of patients with botulism includes:
- gastric drainage to remove botulinum toxin;
- bowel dialysis - this procedure is performed using a 5% soda solution;
- administration of anti-botulinum toxin;
- maintaining solutions to get rid of toxins, correcting violations of water-salt metabolism;
- antibiotic therapy;
- saturation of the body with oxygen in order to eliminate the consequences of pulmonary insufficiency;
- treatment of complications caused by the effects of botulinum toxin on the body.
Persons suspected of botulism are hospitalized immediately. Treatment begins with washing the stomach and intestines. For this cause artificial vomiting, as well as used enemas. Washing the gastrointestinal tract is advisable to carry out in the first days of the disease, when it may be infected with bacteria. Gastric lavage can be performed using a gastric tube.
For a better release of the body from botulinum toxin, agents that accelerate urination are prescribed. But at the same time it is necessary to monitor the water-salt metabolism, as with too intense diuresis, it is possible that electrolytes are washed out of the body.
Antibiotic therapy is prescribed to prevent possible inflammatory processes. Lungs are most susceptible to inflammation, as well as the bladder.
The effectiveness of botulism treatment with antitoxic serum has been proven. It is administered to all persons who ate a suspicious product. Before the introduction of serum must necessarily be tested for foreign proteins, as a result of the increased sensitivity of the body to them can develop anaphylactic shock.
Prevention of botulism
Many people do not know that this is botulism, and do not take measures to maintain hygiene during home conservation. It is very dangerous. It is necessary to maintain the highest purity during the preparation and preparation of food. Of great importance in the prevention of botulism is compliance with the conditions of cooking. Especially dangerous is improperly cooked or roasted food.
If the skin is damaged, a primary wound treatment is necessary.
The prognosis for botulism is mostly favorable. The probability of a lethal outcome increases if modern drugs and methods of treatment are not used during therapy. The rehabilitation period can take several months.
Botulism is a dangerous disease . Only careful attention to their health and hygiene can prevent infection.