Botulism is what it is
Botulism refers to severe toxic infectious diseases. In this case, the nervous system is severely affected (including the dorsal and medulla oblongata). Many people, not knowing what it is botulism, ignore its extreme danger to human life.
Meanwhile, its causative agent is an anaerobic (capable of developing without access to oxygen) rod of Clostridium botulinum. It is capable of producing the strongest poison in nature. The lethal dose of this poison for man is a few thousandths of a microgram! A more toxic substance can not exist according to the laws of chemistry.
Botulism is a disease that is not transmitted from person to person. Infection spreads through the skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract. Recovery from a long illness depends on when the patient asked for medical help.
Causes of botulism
Pathogens of this disease - clostridia botulism - very mobile, able to live in the absence of oxygen and forming spores that survive even in an airless space. In total, seven types of clostridia are known. In the process of its vital activity the rod develops the strongest toxin.
In the development of toxin, gas formation is observed. This is very noticeable on swollen cans. True, pasteurization of canned food for half an hour can kill active bacteria. However, their spores are able to withstand temperatures above 100 degrees and for several hours, which greatly complicates the fight against the pathogen.
At home, botulism poisoning is possible in such ways:
- poisoning with canned food;
- the use of poorly processed mushrooms, vegetables;
- garlic, as well as seasonings that can be in vegetable oil;
- fish home cooking and canning, especially ramming.
In some cases, poisoning with botulism can contribute to the use of honey and products containing pollen.
Clinical picture of botulism
Like any infectious disease, botulism has a latent (incubation) period. It can be several hours or even days, however, on average, from the time of infection to the appearance of the first clinical manifestations, it runs from 18 hours to 24 hours.
The disease begins acutely, resembling food poisoning. The first signs of botulism:
However, vomiting and diarrhea are short, so they do not bother the patient so much that he immediately seeks medical help. Symptoms of dyspepsia are joined by a feeling of raspiraniya in the stomach, the formation of gases.
Soon signs of food poisoning are joined by symptoms that indicate the defeat of the central nervous system. The most characteristic and alarming sign of this disease is the fog before your eyes or the feeling of a net. Patients can not read, as the spasm of accommodation develops (the inability of the eye to adapt to work at close range). Often there is a double vision of objects.
Usually in this period the patients turn to the doctor. On examination, attention is drawn to the disorder of the reaction of the eye to light, and sometimes to the omission of the eyelid. The temperature, as a rule, does not rise above 38 degrees. At the same time, muscle weakness develops. The face of the patient with botulism becomes like a mask. He can not stick out his tongue, because of which swallowing disorders are observed.
Often patients can not hold their heads as a result of weakness of the neck muscles and are forced to support it. Breath as a result of weakness of the respiratory muscles becomes weak. At the same time sensitivity in spite of muscle weakness is completely preserved. Violated and the activity of the heart.
It is interesting that, although this poisoning is characterized as the most severe, the individuals who have been ill with it do not have any noticeable consequences of the infections. Among the complications are:
- visual impairment;
- diseases of the muscular tissue.
Treatment of botulism
Treatment of the disease is aimed at removing toxin from the body and eliminating the changes caused by it. The general scheme of treatment of patients with botulism includes:
- Drainage of the stomach to remove botulinum toxin;
- dialysis of the intestine - this procedure is carried out using a five percent solution of soda;
- administration of serum against botulinum toxin;
- management of solutions for the purpose of getting rid of toxins, correcting violations of water-salt metabolism;
- antibiotic therapy;
- saturation of the body with oxygen in order to eliminate the consequences of pulmonary insufficiency;
- treatment of complications caused by the action of botulinum toxin on the body.
Persons with suspicion of botulism immediately hospitalized. Treatment begins with the washing of the stomach and intestines. To do this, induce vomiting, and also use enemas. It is advisable to flush the gastrointestinal tract in the early days of the disease, when food contaminated with bacteria can be found in it. Gastric lavage can be performed using a gastric tube.
For better release of the body from botulinum toxin appoint funds that accelerate urination. But at the same time it is necessary to monitor the water-salt metabolism, since with too intense diuresis, it is possible that the electrolytes are washed out of the body.
Therapy with antibiotics is prescribed to prevent possible inflammatory processes. The lungs are most prone to inflammation, as well as the bladder.
The effectiveness of botulinum treatment with antitoxic serum has been proved. It is administered to all persons who eat a suspicious product. Before the introduction of serum, a test for foreign proteins must be performed, as anaphylactic shock can develop as a result of the increased sensitivity of the organism to them.
Prevention of botulism
Many people do not know that this is botulism, and do not take measures to maintain hygiene during house conservation. It is very dangerous. It is necessary to maintain the strictest purity during harvesting and cooking food. Great importance in the prevention of botulism is the observance of cooking conditions. Especially dangerous is the wrongly cooked or fried food.
If the skin is damaged, the wound must be treated first.
The forecast for botulism is mostly favorable. The likelihood of a lethal outcome increases if during the therapy modern means and methods of treatment are not used. The rehabilitation period may take several months.
Botulism is a dangerous disease . Only an attentive attitude towards one's health and hygiene can prevent infection.