At what temperature does botulism die?
Botulism is an infectious disease that occurs as a result of the ingestion of botulinum toxin, as a result of which the nervous system of the body is affected.
The causative agents of this disease are Gram-negative anaerobic mobile sticks - Clostridia.
The optimal conditions for life, growth and reproduction are:
- temperature (+ 28–35 degrees Celsius);
- anaerobic habitat conditions.
That is, this microorganism is able to live due to the release of energy from various nutrients, but without oxygen.
If these conditions are violated, then the vegetative forms of this microorganism turn into spores. The spore form enters the soil, then on food (fruits, vegetables, berries, water).
Does botulism die when boiling?
Botulism in nature is presented in two forms:
- vegetative form;
- spore form.
Many housewives are interested in the question of whether he dies during boiling. The correct answer lies in the knowledge of the forms of botulism and the measures of their inactivation.
The vegetative form of botulism dies at a temperature of 100 degrees for five minutes. And the spore form of botulism dies when boiling for 4–5 hours.
Spore forms are resistant to many environmental factors:
- do not die at a temperature of 100 degrees for 4-5 hours;
- resistant when exposed to high concentrations of disinfectants;
- retain their viability in foods containing table salt up to 18%;
- spores are resistant to freezing;
- persist upon drying;
- transfer ultraviolet radiation.
Under optimal growth conditions (anaerobic environment) clostridia secrete a specific neurotoxin. Research has shown that 1 gram of such a toxin, in crystalline form, contains about one million lethal doses.
Where are clostridia botulism
Clostridiums are common in nature. Spore and vegetative forms inhabit the intestines of animals (domestic and wild), various fish, and waterfowl. Spore forms enter the environment and persist for a long time in the soil. Thus, almost all food products can contain both vegetative forms and spore forms of the pathogen.
Potentially dangerous products:
- canned foods (homemade spins);
- dried fish;
- smoked products;
In solid foods (sausage, meat, fish), the "nest" spread of the pathogen is possible. So, when eating the same product by several people, it is possible that only one of them is infected.
In nature, there is also "wound botulism" and "botulism of newborn children."
Neonatal botulism can occur in children up to 12 months of age. Most often, this form of botulism is found in antisocial families, where there is not enough care for a newborn child. Spore forms can be found in household dust, on the mother's skin, in the soil. Getting into the digestive tract of the child, the spores begin to germinate and produce neurotoxins. There were also cases with the release of spores from honey, which is part of substitutes for breast milk (infant formulas). Thus, babies who are on artificial feeding, were exposed to the risk of infection with botulism.
"Wound botulism" can develop only if there are wounds on the skin. Getting into the wound surface, where good anaerobic conditions are created, spores, pass into vegetative forms that produce neurotoxins. Very often drug addicts become infected with this form of botulism.
The clinical picture of botulism poisoning
- abdominal pain, mainly in the epigastric region;
- repeated vomiting;
- loose stools (no more than 10 times a day, without pathological impurities).
- impaired visual acuity (“mist in the eyes” or “midges before the eyes”, myopia, patients do not see the text);
- perhaps the appearance of double vision;
- miosis (constriction of the pupils) or mydriasis (dilated pupils);
- not a lively reaction to light.
- swallowing disorder;
- timbre and pitch change;
- nasalism appears;
- restriction of language mobility;
- inability to keep head straight (paralysis of accessory nerve);
- feeling not swallowed pills in the pharynx;
- aphagy (when swallowing liquid food, it pours out through the nose);
- aspiration with food and water.
- pulse lability (at the onset of the disease it is weak, slowed down, as the disease progresses, it becomes more frequent);
- blood pressure rises;
- spasm of blood vessels.
- progressive muscle weakness, which initially affects the occipital muscles, as a result of which the patient has to support his head, the intercostal muscles are affected further, so the breathing becomes shallow, the victim feels a strong contraction of the chest;
- ptosis (eyelid overhang) - patients can not fully open their eyes.
Acute respiratory failure:
- accumulation of viscous sputum in the epiglottic space;
- sputum expectoration is impaired;
- aspiration pneumonia;
- tracheobronchitis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the trachea and bronchi).
Asteno vegetative syndromes:
With the development of severe botulism, death usually occurs on day 2 due to respiratory failure.
Recovery usually occurs very slowly. First, neurological symptoms regress, then vision and muscle strength are restored.
Basics of treatment and prevention of botulism
In the case of botulism poisoning, constant medical monitoring of the patient, the introduction of antitoxic serums and readiness for urgent measures to restore vital organs and body systems are necessary.
Prevention of botulism involves compliance with basic hygienic rules for the storage and preparation of meat and fish products, preservation and smoking. Home canned mushrooms are especially dangerous.
Not everyone knows at what temperature botulism dies. Therefore, before using the products listed above, it is advisable to boil them for 20-30 minutes. Thus, you will achieve the complete neutralization of toxins.
How to kill botulism? - only by boiling.
One should always remember that the disease is easier to prevent than to treat it.