At what temperature does botulism die
Botulism is an infectious disease that occurs due to the ingestion of botulinum toxin into the body, as a result of which the nervous system of the body is affected.
The causative agents of this disease are gram-negative anaerobic mobile rods - clostridia.
Optimal conditions for life, growth and reproduction are:
- temperature (+ 28-35 degrees Celsius);
- anaerobic habitat.
That is, this microorganism is able to live at the expense of energy release from various nutrients, but without oxygen.
If these conditions are violated, the vegetative forms of this microorganism turn into spores. Spore form enters the soil, then into food (fruits, vegetables, berries, water).
Does botulism die by boiling?
Botulism in nature is presented in two forms:
- vegetative form;
- spore form.
Many housewives are interested in the question whether he dies when boiling. The correct answer lies in the knowledge of the forms of botulism and the measures of their inactivation.
The vegetative form of botulism perishes at a temperature of 100 degrees for five minutes. A spore form of botulism perishes during boiling for 4-5 hours.
Spore forms are resistant to many environmental factors:
- Do not die at a temperature of 100 degrees to 4-5 hours;
- are resistant to high concentrations of disinfectants;
- they retain their viability in products containing table salt up to 18%;
- spores are resistant to freezing;
- preserved when dried;
- transfer ultraviolet irradiation.
Under optimal growth conditions (anaerobic environment), clostridia secretes a specific neurotoxin. Studies have shown that 1 gram of such a toxin - in a crystalline form, contains about one million lethal doses.
Where do clostridia of botulism live?
Clostridia is common in nature. Spore and vegetative forms inhabit the intestines of animals (domestic and wild), various fish, waterfowl. Spore forms enter the external environment and persist for a long time in the soil. Thus, practically all food products can contain both vegetative forms and spore forms of the pathogen.
Potentially hazardous products:
- canned foods (home-made spins);
- dried fish;
- smoked products;
In solid foods (sausages, meat, fish), it is possible to "nest" the spread of the pathogen. So, when eating the same product by several people, it is possible to contaminate only one of them.
Other types of botulism
In nature, there is also "wound botulism" and "botulism of newborn children."
Botulism of newborns can occur in children up to 12 months of life. Most often this form of botulism occurs in antisocial families, where there is insufficient care for a newborn child. Spore forms can be found in household dust, on the mother's skin, in the soil. Getting into the digestive tract of the child, spores begin to germinate and produce neurotoxins. There were also cases with the allocation of spores from honey, which is part of the substitutes for women's milk (infant formulas). Thus, children who are on artificial feeding, were exposed to the danger of infection with botulism.
"Wound botulism" can develop only if there are wounds on the skin. Getting into the wound surface, where there are good anaerobic conditions, spores, go to vegetative forms that produce neurotoxins. Very often such a form of botulism is infected by drug addicts.
The clinical picture of botulism poisoning
- abdominal pain, mainly in the epigastric region;
- repeated vomiting;
- liquid stool (not more often 10 times a day, without pathological impurities).
- violation of visual acuity ("fog in the eyes" or "midges before the eyes", myopia, patients do not see the text);
- perhaps the appearance of double vision in the eyes;
- myosis (narrowing of the pupils) or mydriasis (dilated pupils);
- not a living reaction to light.
- Swallowing disorder;
- The timbre and height of the voice change;
- appears nasal;
- limitation of language mobility;
- inability to keep the head straight (paralysis of the accessory nerve);
- feeling of not swallowed a pill in the throat;
- aphagia (with the ingestion of liquid food, it pours out through the nose);
- aspiration with food and water.
- lability of pulse (at the beginning of the disease it is weak, slowed down, as the disease progresses, it becomes more frequent);
- arterial pressure rises;
- spasm of blood vessels.
- progressive muscular weakness, which initially affects the occipital muscles, as a result of which the patient has to maintain his head, later intercostal muscles are affected, so breathing becomes superficial, the victim feels a strong contraction of the chest;
- ptosis (overhanging eyelids) - patients can not fully open their eyes.
Acute respiratory failure:
- congestion of viscous sputum in the epiglottis;
- sphagnum sphagnum is broken;
- aspiration pneumonia;
- tracheobronchitis (inflammation of the mucosa of the trachea and bronchi).
With the development of a severe form of botulism, death usually occurs on the 2nd day due to respiratory failure.
Recovery usually occurs very slowly. First, neurologic symptoms regress, then vision and muscle strength are restored.
Basics of treatment and prevention of botulism
In the case of poisoning by botulism, constant medical monitoring of the patient, the introduction of antitoxic serums and the readiness for urgent measures for the restoration of vital organs and body systems are necessary.
Prevention of botulism implies compliance with basic hygienic rules for storage and preparation of meat and fish products, conservation and smoking. Particularly dangerous are home-made canned mushrooms.
Not everyone knows at what temperature botulism dies. Therefore, before using the above products, it is advisable to boil them for 20-30 minutes. Thus, you will achieve complete neutralization of toxins.
How to kill botulism? - Only by boiling.
Always remember the rule that the disease is easier to prevent than to treat it later.