Botulism in mushrooms
Most of us with the word botulism, there is an association associated with canned food. First of all, this refers to mushroom preforms of domestic origin.
Why is botulism found in mushrooms and how to destroy a dangerous bacterium? Where does it come from in canned food and how to properly spin it to avoid dangerous poisoning? Let's understand.
A bit of history
Botulism and fungi are far from the only combination. Traditionally, since the middle of the 20th century, when sealed canning began to be used massively, and to this day, the source of the disease for the majority of victims are domestic preparations for the winter. But in historical times, massive cases of botulism in Russia arose only from eating salted and dried fish. In European countries, poisonings were associated with meat sausages, hence the name of the disease (Latin botulus - sausage).
Botulism is a dangerous toxic infectious disease caused by the toxins of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. This stick lives in the soil and is distributed everywhere. It is able to form spores that are extremely resistant to unfavorable environmental factors - high temperature (up to + 120 ° C), lack of moisture, exposure to ultraviolet and disinfectants. In anoxic conditions and at temperatures above +10 ° C, the bacterium actively multiplies with the release of a large number of gases. A by-product of the life of the rod is toxin botulinum, which has a paralyzing effect on the nervous system and muscles of animals and humans.
For a lethal poisoning, a microscopic dose of botulinum is sufficient - from 5 to 50 ng / kg of body weight. Without timely medical intervention, a fatal outcome is likely in 30-60% of cases, and even in treatment this figure is close to 10%. That is why botulism is one of the most dangerous food-borne diseases and its prevention among food poisoning ranks first among other diseases.
Where does botulism take in mushrooms
According to statistics, more than half of cases of poisoning are associated with eating canned house mushrooms. According to other sources, this figure in Moscow and the region reaches 84%. The fish account for 10%, for canned meat and sausages - about 4%. Why poisoning with mushrooms causes botulism more often than others? Since the bacteria are contained in the soil, it is very difficult to get rid of them from them - the fungi are dirtiest compared to other products, and you will not be able to remove the microscopic particles completely.
As for canned food of industrial production, here the danger of botulism in mushrooms and other products is minimized, because the plants use special high-temperature regimes for sterilizing products.
How does botulism develop in mushrooms? To accumulate a toxin, certain conditions are necessary. The rods of the pathogen enter the mushrooms together with the ground. Reproduction of bacteria occurs in closed jars without access to oxygen. The optimum temperature for botulinum is +35 ° C, so when storing blanks at room temperature the risk of poisoning increases. Domestic temperature regimes of sterilization practically do not exert any influence on the spores of the causative agent, the more they can not affect the already produced toxin. And still, adherence to a certain technology of twisting fungi reduces the risk of botulism to a minimum. About this, we'll talk a little lower, and now we'll learn how to store mushrooms in order to avoid poisoning.
How to avoid botulism while preserving mushrooms
As only those products that have been stored for some time under a tightly closed cap without access to oxygen become hazardous to health, then can only be poisoned by canned food. For example, botulism in fried mushrooms is found when the original product was initially preserved, and after that it was opened and cooked.
To minimize the trouble with the fungi, observe the following rules for storage and preparation of the product.
- Keep canned food in a cool cellar, refrigerator, at a temperature not higher than +6 ° C.
- Do not store your home billets for more than one year.
- Before eating, pickled mushrooms must be further processed - boiled, baked or fried.
- Collect the mushrooms processed immediately - do not leave them for tomorrow.
- When harvesting, gently cut the mushroom, leaving the roots in the soil, so as not to soil the entire contents of the basket with earth.
- Carefully wash and clean the raw materials from the ground and debris.
How to properly preserve
The only sure way to avoid botulism in mushrooms is to prepare them in such a way that no tight closure is required. It can be pickling outdoors or drying. Proven old-fashioned methods will keep the product as good as the new-fangled marinade.
What to do, if such recipes do not interest you? Here are some tips on how to avoid botulism while preserving mushrooms, which will reduce the risk to a minimum.
- You can not seal the mushroom canned food with metal lids. Unfortunately, most housewives do not comply with this rule. Meanwhile, the cans should be covered with parchment paper or dense nylon lids.
- Very dangerous recipes in which mushrooms are filled with a hot marinade without boiling. In this case, the canned food must be left in the refrigerator for at least 10 days and must be eaten as early as possible.
- To reduce the likelihood of development of botulism in pickled mushrooms before canning they are boiled for 30 minutes.
- Remember that boiling does not guarantee the destruction of botulism bacteria, since spores easily withstand heating to +120 ° C. Therefore, canned food can be sterilized with an autoclave, in which a temperature regime above + 125 ° C is possible.
A simple and reliable way to keep mushrooms for a long time is frost. With the advent of available freezers, this method is becoming increasingly popular.
Signs of botulism in canned mushrooms
How to determine botulism in pickled mushrooms? The main danger is that outwardly the product can look quite harmless. Mushrooms are pleasant to taste, do not change color and smell, however, microscopic amounts of toxin can already be inside the jar. In this case, if the product is eaten by several people, there is a possibility that not all will fall ill, and one or two - those who have got the toxin.
And yet there is unequivocal evidence of the presence of botulinum bacteria in the ukuporenoy bank. Here are the characteristic signs of botulism in canned mushrooms:
- bombazh banks - bloating lids;
- blurred content.
The toxin is very stable and can persist in canned food for years, even if the bacterium has long since died. It is not affected by salt, sugar, vinegar and spices. Therefore, there is no way to destroy botulism in mushrooms.
All suspicious banks, as well as canned goods with a shelf life of more than one year should be thrown out without regret!
We will repeat preventive measures that will help to avoid poisoning. It is necessary to strictly adhere to several rules for harvesting mushrooms for the winter.
- Do not seal the marinade tightly with the help of tin lids - it is better to use kapron lids or parchment paper.
- Thoroughly clean the raw materials from debris and earth.
- Before canning mushrooms boil for half an hour.
- Keep canned food in a cool place and store them for not more than a year.
- And suspicious banks with a bloated lid or pomutnevshim content to throw out without regret.
Do not risk your health and do not try to try the product - as already mentioned before, botulinum can be present in canned food, apparently not spoiled.
In conclusion, one can say: it is always necessary to remember that any canned food can become a source of such a dangerous foodborne infection as botulism. Mushrooms in this regard are the most dangerous, due to the popularity of pickled mushroom canned food, where anaerobic conditions, that is, without access to oxygen, create ideal conditions for the growth of clostridia, especially at a temperature of 35 ° C.