What should I do if bitten by a tick
Camping is one of the best ways to relieve stress and regain strength. With the onset of the summer season, many urban residents prefer to spend time in parks and forest parks, and some are keen on hiking and hiking. Going to such an event, it is necessary to provide for all the most probable troubles, so as not to spoil the rest.
Those who are going to rest in forest and forest-steppe zones need to have a minimum knowledge of tick-parasites. What kinds of them are dangerous to health, what to do if a person is bitten by a tick and where to go for help? Let's find out.
Which mites are dangerous to humans
Several types of ticks attack a person. These small arachnids are close relatives of insects. From insects they are distinguished by the following features:
- The ticks have eight legs, while the insects have six;
- The head and torso of mites are fused together, and insects do not.
The greatest harm to man is caused by ixodid mites. These parasites have a complex development cycle, adults eat the blood of mammals. In Russia, two types of ixodid ticks are most often the carriers of disease: Ixodes ricinus in the European part of Russia and Ixodes persulcatus in Siberia.
Can a tick bite, but not suck? Yes, so do male mites, which need a small amount of blood.
The bite can pass unnoticed for a person, as the parasite injects with anolyte anesthetic.
What does a tick look like?
Typically, the mite is found on examination of the body. Favorite places of the bite:
- Elbow bend;
- skin behind the ears;
- groin area;
- places where blood vessels and more delicate skin are close.
The tick, which has not yet begun to feed, has a size of 5-6 mm, it has four pairs of legs, the body is oval-elongated, and the back is covered with a chitinous shield.
In males the shield covers the entire body, in females only the anterior part. When feeding, the body of the female increases in size many times and becomes well marked.
Where can I pick up a mite
Ticks live in thick undergrowth of deciduous and coniferous forests, in southern regions it can be a dense shrub, a thicket of raspberries. The attack is carried out from a branch of a bush or a high grass on which the tick sits, widely spreading the front paws with which it clings to a passing person or animal.
The mites do not climb the trees, so they can not fall from above. However, getting on clothes, ticks move in search of a suitable place for food.
The peak of the activity of ticks is spring (May and early June), when hungry females awake. The time of attack is mainly the morning hours. In hot weather and on rainy days ticks are inactive.
How to recognize the attack of a parasite and what are the symptoms of a tick bite in a person? It is almost impossible to detect a tick at the moment of a bite. Therefore, after a walk you need to carefully inspect the whole body. The place where the mite sucked will be slightly reddened, in the center is visible a dark point - the body of the tick. In a few days the abdomen of the parasite will start to swell from the blood and become well marked.
What is dangerous for a person to bite a tick
What is dangerous for a person to bite a tick? The mite itself is not poisonous. If you treat the bite site to prevent accidental infection (as for any wound), the skin quickly heals. But in some areas the parasite can serve as a carrier of various diseases of man and animals. Here is a list of diseases that are spread on the territory of our country, which can transmit the tick:
- tick-borne encephalitis;
- tick-borne borreliosis;
- typhus tick-borne typhus;
- recurrent tick-borne typhus;
- hemorrhagic fevers - several species (Crimean, Omsk, fever with renal syndrome);
Most often found on the territory of Russia and represent a serious danger to human health - tick-borne encephalitis and borreliosis.
Dysfunctional areas, where many foci of tick-borne encephalitis are Siberia, the Urals, the Far East. Periodically, the disease occurs in the middle zone of Russia, the Volga region and the North-West region.
This is a viral disease that causes damage to the nervous system - inflammation of the membranes of the brain (encephalitis). The virus circulates in the population of warm-blooded animals, from which it is transmitted to a person with a tick bite. Poisoning occurs with the saliva of the parasite, and the virus enters the human body almost immediately after sucking the tick.
Symptoms of encephalitis after a tick bite appear after 1-2 weeks. The disease begins abruptly, often the patient can specify the time to within an hour.
Signs of tick-borne encephalitis:
- increase in temperature to 38-40 ° C;
- pain in the eyeballs, muscles, joints;
In acute disease, death may occur in 5-7 days. The probability of such an outcome for people of the European type is 1-2%, for the Far Eastern nationalities - 20-25%.
Preventive measures to prevent infection is immunoglobulin when bitten by a tick. It is administered in the first three days after the bite intramuscularly at a dose of 1.5 to 3 ml, depending on the age. After 10 days, the injection is repeated in an amount of 6 ml. Gammaglobulin with a tick bite does not give a 100% guarantee against the development of infection. Therefore, vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis is practiced in disadvantaged areas.
Tick borreliosis is a dangerous disease, often occurring in chronic form and leading to disability. The causative agent is the spirochete microbe of Borrelia burgdorferi. It causes damage to the nervous system, joints, skin and heart. Another name for the infection is Lyme disease. It is distributed practically on all territory of Russia where mites live. Symptoms of Lyme disease after a tick bite depend on the stage of the disease.
In the early stage, the temperature rises, there is weakness and aches in the muscles and joints. A specific symptom is the erythema migrating at the site of the bite, which is the ring reddening of the skin, which expands for several days. In some cases, erythema may be absent. There may be redness of the skin, itching and an increase in regional lymph nodes.
- In the second stage, the infection spreads through the body and affects the nervous system, skin and heart. Symptoms appear several weeks or months after infection: neuralgic pain in the lower back or in the face, arrhythmia, myocarditis, red skin rashes.
- In the chronic stage, the development of joint damage, memory loss, the appearance of nodules on the skin.
Borreliosis does not lead to death, but with a late treatment, a person can become disabled.
The causative agent of infection is in the digestive tract of the tick, so if the parasite is removed no later than 5 hours after sucking, infection can be avoided. For emergency prevention of borreliosis after a tick bite for 72 hours, antibiotics are taken. Vaccines against this disease there, as well as specific means of treatment (immunoglobulins).
How to take Doxycycline with a tick bite:
- adults - 200 mg (1 tablet);
- Children over the age of 8 years - 4 mg per kg of body weight.
Young children and pregnant women can not be prevented.
First aid with a tick bite of a person
The first help with a tick bite in a person is to carefully remove the parasite from the skin.
There are several ways to do this.
- Fingers - if the tick sucked enough and got a large size.
- Using tweezers.
- With the help of special tools.
- With the help of a thread. Make a twisted loop, which is put on the head of the parasite.
Ticks should not be taken with bare hands. You need to wear gloves or a plastic bag. You can not put pressure on the body of the parasite, jerk it up sharply, otherwise the head may come off. It is necessary to grab the tick as close to the head as possible and to "turn" it out of the skin with light, twisting and swinging movements. If the head still broke away, disinfect the bite and remove it with a needle as a normal splinter. Live mites are placed in a vial with a piece of moist tissue and sent to a laboratory for examination for infection.
Than to treat a wound after a tick bite:
- alcohol solution of iodine.
What kind of doctor should I use when I bite a tick
You must apply for medical assistance in the following situations:
- if you can not remove the tick yourself;
- you are in an area that is unsuccessful for infections that are transmitted through a tick bite;
- After a tick bite, fever, a biting place or regional lymph nodes increased.
In any case, you should call 03 for advice and clarification of the epidemiological situation in this region. Most likely, you will be sent to the district sanitary epidemiological station or the nearest trauma center. What kind of doctor should I use when I bite a tick? - To the doctor-infektsionistu.
Some useful recommendations
- If you have kept a live tick for analysis, it will be taken to the laboratory at an infectious hospital or at a sanitary epidemiological station.
- If you are vaccinated against tick-borne encephalitis, then this provides guaranteed protection against infection with the virus.
- 10 days after the bite, you can examine the blood by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for tick-borne encephalitis and borreliosis.
- After 14 days, the blood is tested for antibodies to tick-borne encephalitis.
- Antibodies of borreliosis can be detected in the blood only a month after infection.
The tick bite itself is not dangerous, although it is unpleasant. Nevertheless, the tick can serve as a carrier of various infections, the most common of which are tick-borne encephalitis and Lyme disease (borreliosis). After the parasite is found on the body, it is necessary to carefully remove it, taking care not to crush and tear off the head. The place of the bite is disinfected. In order to clarify the situation with the infections in this area, contact the service 03. It may be necessary to conduct emergency prevention or preventive treatment.