What to do when you are bitten by a dog
Dogs are long-time companions of man. They can be found everywhere - in large megacities, country cottages and remote villages. Not always these wonderful animals are examples of education, and even stray dogs, despite the efforts of the authorities, do not get smaller every year. When faced with such animals for a person, it is possible to be bitten.
How dangerous are such injuries, what consequences do they have and what to do with a dog bite? Let's look at these questions.
The more dangerous the dog's bite
A dog's bite is a traumatic injury. The degree of its danger depends on several factors.
- Bleeding. The stronger the damage, the greater the likelihood that any large vein or artery is touched. In severe injuries, it may be the development of internal bleeding.
- Damage to tissues. With superficial bites, only the skin is damaged. As a rule, such traumas do not pose a serious threat and quickly heal. In case of lacerations, muscles are damaged, in severe cases, joints, ligaments and even bones.
- Infection of the wound. What if the dog was bitten on the street? If the skin is damaged, various microbes enter the wound, which can cause local inflammation or general sepsis. Especially dangerous is the causative agent of tetanus, which can enter the wound with particles of ground, so it is recommended to inject antitetanus serum when bites are applied.
- Psychological shock. A dog attack can cause severe fright, which is fraught with consequences for young children and people with chronic heart diseases. Increased blood pressure, a risk of developing heart failure, mental disorders - all this requires immediate medical attention.
- Rabies. Dogs are responsible for the infection of people with rabies in about 60% of cases of the total number of cases.
About rabies talk in more detail. What to do if a dog is bitten by a person with signs of rabies, what measures to take?
Symptoms of rabies in humans after a dog bite
Rabies is transmitted to a person with the saliva of an infected animal. In this case, the dog may not show any external signs, since the virus is released at the end of the incubation period, a few days before the first signs of the disease appear. Infection of a person, perhaps not only with a bite, but also with the ingress of saliva on the damaged skin or mucous membranes of the eyes, oral and nasal cavity. Getting into the body, the virus develops slowly enough, spreading along the nervous pathways and hitting the nervous system.
Signs of rabies in dogs:
- behavior change, as a rule, towards aggression;
- perversion of taste - the animal gnaws a tree, rags, eats the ground;
- a sharp reaction to external stimuli (sound, light, touch);
- in the final stage - paresis and paralysis.
Symptoms of rabies in humans after a dog bite develop after 10-15 days. If a person is bitten by a rabid dog, there is no 100% incidence. The probability of infection with rabies depends on the site of the bite, the amount of the virus that has entered the body, the state of the immune system and some other factors. The greatest probability of infection - with bites in the face, neck, shoulders. With superficial damage, the incubation period of the disease can be up to 2-3 months in some cases even up to a year. The following symptoms are observed in a person:
- dry mouth;
- increased sensitivity, fear of bright light, sharp sounds;
- hydrophobia, spasms of the throat muscles;
- impaired consciousness;
- paresis and paralysis.
Death in humans occurs 5 to 8 days after the onset of the first symptoms of rabies and comes from respiratory paralysis. Rabies has a nearly 100% fatal outcome. People who survived the first signs of the disease - a unit. Therefore, when bitten by an unknown dog, it is very important to seek medical help immediately!
Vaccination against rabies
The rabiologist is engaged in the prevention of rabies. In each municipality on the basis of the medical institution there is a special office. As a rule, they are located in district clinics. In large cities there are specialized vaccination centers. The injections after the dog's bite, do as early as possible following the following pattern:
- the first injection is done on the day of treatment, sometimes, depending on the indications, in parallel injected antirabic immunoglobulin;
- the following vaccinations are done on days 3, 7, 14, 30 and 90.
What should I do if I am bitten by a domestic dog? If the owner has the appropriate veterinary documents on vaccinating a dog against rabies (valid for a year), then injections do not have to.
In all other cases, you need to be vaccinated, but not necessarily a full course of injections.
- If a bite is obtained from a stray animal, it is advisable to catch a dog and send it to a study. If the dog is externally healthy, and in laboratory tests the rabies virus is not detected, then after receiving the results, injections of the vaccine are stopped. In this case, you will get one or two injections, depending on the speed of the research.
- If a domestic unvaccinated dog is bitten, it is sent to quarantine in a state veterinary clinic, where they are kept for 10 days. If during this period the dog did not show any signs of a disease, the veterinarian gives the appropriate medical report to the medical institution and stops the rabies injections.
What to do if a dog bites
If a vaccinated dog has bitten, what to do with injuries? In any case, the victim needs first aid.
- To examine the wound - how deep the injuries are, whether the vessels, bones, ligaments are not affected.
- Before treating the wound after a dog bite, if necessary, stop bleeding. If a large artery is damaged, then apply a tourniquet above the bleeding site; when the vein is hurt enough, there will be a pressure bandage.
- How to treat the wound after a dog bite: rinse with 3% hydrogen peroxide solution. If there is no peroxide, then first rinse with soapy water, then one of the antiseptics: a pink solution of potassium permanganate, "Furacilin" (10 tablets of 0.02 g per liter of water). Skin around the wound is greased with a green or 5% alcohol solution of iodine.
- Apply a sterile gauze bandage. Do not tighten the bandage if there is no bleeding.
In some cases, such help is sufficient for a normal healing of the bite.
When should I see a doctor?
In case of severe injuries, you should contact a traumatologist. Dogs cause two types of damage:
- stab wounds - violate the integrity of the skin;
- lacerations - skin and tissue under it.
Ragged wounds, as well as damage to the face should be sewn.
What should I do if a dog bites a child? If there is practically no damage, then treat the wound and make sure that it does not become inflamed. Sometimes a toddler may need the help of a psychologist to cope with the fears that have arisen.
Treatment of a wound
After a bite, it takes some time for the wound to heal. Small lesions can be treated independently. This requires:
- daily inspection and treatment of the wound;
- place bite is not wetting;
- daily change the bandage;
- if there are small discharge from the wound - first rinse with one of the antiseptic solutions (do not use hydrogen peroxide during this period), then use powder;
- if the wound is dry and clean - apply ointment.
When a dog bites, the "Synthomycin" ointment or Vishnevsky emulsion is a good treatment. You can also use antiseptic drugs in the can - Panthenol, Akutol.
In case of serious damage, the doctor will provide the necessary assistance, give recommendations on the treatment of the wound, possibly prescribe a course of antibiotics.
Where to go if you were bitten by a dog? If the animal is not vaccinated against rabies, it is necessary to undergo a course of injections of rabies vaccine. If the injuries are superficial, you can treat the wound yourself and go to an antirabic cabinet in a polyclinic or a specialized medical center.
If a wound treatment is required, then you need to contact a traumatologist at a polyclinic or a trauma center. After processing the wound, the doctor will send you for rabies vaccination. It will take from three to six injections of the vaccine in order to prevent the possible development of the disease.