What Helps From Mosquito Bites
Oh, the summer is red! I would have loved you when it was not heat, dust, mosquitoes, flies. (AS Pushkin)
Summer outdoor recreation is often overshadowed by the attack of bloodsucking insects. Mosquitoes are widespread throughout Russia, and in the northern regions they are part of the community of blood-sucking insects, called - gnus.
How dangerous are they, can they be carriers of diseases and what helps against mosquito bites?
What is dangerous mosquito bites
In Russia, more than 90 species of mosquitoes live. In the middle band the most common are:
- malarial mosquitoes (genus Anopheles);
- spring mosquitoes of the genus Ochlerotatus;
- and autumn mosquitoes-peep-holes (Culex).
Mosquitoes are dipterous insects. Males are completely harmless and feed on plant nectar, but females need a protein to continue their genus, which they receive from the blood of animals and humans.
Blood female-mosquito consumes only once, after which it lays eggs and dies. The bite itself can be painless, but usually a person experiences unpleasant sensations, similar to an injection. The insect selects areas with a delicate skin and close-fitting blood vessels. Punctures the skin and the capillary wall with a proboscis and injects saliva containing anticoagulants - substances that prevent blood coagulation. Poisoning from mosquito bites is impossible, because there is no poison in mosquitoes.
Anticoagulants cause edema and redness of the skin at the puncture site, itching. If the place of the bite is combed - mosquito saliva will spread into the surrounding tissues and the reaction will only intensify.
Mosquito bites can cause trouble if there are a lot of them. Also, children of small age do not tolerate them well because of the resulting itching.
A more serious danger is allergic reactions and various vector-borne diseases (infectious diseases transmitted with blood-sucking insects).
In the central part of Russia, diseases transmitted with mosquito bites are single cases.
Allergy to mosquito bites
Allergic reactions to mosquito bites occur less frequently and are not as severe as from the attack of stinging insects - bees, wasps. The signs of developing allergies are:
- swelling of the skin in places of bite;
- temperature increase;
In extremely rare cases, an allergy from mosquito bites can cause hives, vasomotor rhinitis and bronchospasm.
Mosquitoes as carriers of diseases
Infectious diseases that are transmitted through a mosquito bite are found mainly in southern countries, mainly in the tropics. They can be of two types:
- diseases in which mosquitoes serve as mechanical transmitters of pathogens;
- diseases, in which the pathogen needs to live a certain time in the body of a mosquito.
The latter are most dangerous, but the development of infection requires a sufficiently long cycle in the mosquito and the creation of a natural focus from wild warm-blooded animals, which, perhaps, only in hot countries. Infection is transmitted with the saliva of the female at the time of blood supply. In Russia there are only three diseases, while in the countries of the tropical belt there are several dozens. Therefore, going on an exotic journey, do not forget to clarify which vaccinations are recommended for prevention.
- Malaria, or swamp fever - a group of diseases caused by protozoa. In the world, about 200 million people fall ill every year, 600,000 of them die. Up to 90% of the cases are in areas of the African continent south of the Sahara. Carry the pathogens of malaria only mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. In the 60s of the last century, the Soviet Union got rid of malaria, but in our time there are isolated cases of the disease. They are mostly tourists coming from countries with a hot climate: Afghanistan, India, Iran, Pakistan, Thailand, Cambodia, Myanmar, Vietnam and another 22 African countries. What happens if a mosquito bites? There are malarial mosquitoes in Russia, but there is no malaria - that is, the insects are free from the pathogen. In isolated cases, there is a possibility to get infected if the mosquito before it has bitten the malarial patient. So, in 2010 107 cases were registered, in 2012 - 86, in 2012 - 87, in 2013 - 95. With rare exception, all cases are imported. Disadvantaged for malaria are considered and visitors from Tajikistan and Azerbaijan. Tajikistan has a hotbed of deadly tropical malaria. As for the formation of foci in the territory of Russia, this opportunity exists in the hot years for the Krasnodar Territory, the Astrakhan and Volgograd regions, and Dagestan.
- Dirofilariasis is a parasitic disease caused by the development of nematode larvae - roundworms. The mosquito, the dog and the person participate in the development of the parasite. The disease is registered in the Moscow and Tula regions.
- A mosquito of the genus Culex (real mosquitoes) can serve as a carrier of tularemia, a zoonotic infection, including from animals to humans.
- In tropical countries, mosquitoes from the genus Aedes serve as carriers of various viral fevers. Dengue fever is common in the Caribbean, Central America and southern Central Asia, yellow fever in Africa and South America.
- Lymphatic filariasis (elephant skin) can be obtained by biting a mosquito in the tropical belt of Africa, Asia, South America, the Pacific Islands.
- Wipe the skin with medical alcohol or ammonia, or moisten with water to cool. Any skin lotion is also suitable.
- A good way to remove the edema from a mosquito bite is baking soda. It can be used in a solution (half a teaspoon per glass of water) or in the form of gruel.
In our climate, the greatest trouble from mosquito attacks is itching and edema.
How to remove the itch from a mosquito bite? There are several simple recipes.
How to smear mosquito bites so that they do not itch? The pharmacy sells a lot of funds from insect bites in the form of ointments, balms, lotions, sprays and pencils. Such means include "Star", "Vital", "Psilo-balm".
You can use antihistamine or anti-inflammatory ointments: Sinaflane, Advantan, Fenistil-gel.
What if the mosquito bites into the eye? Rinse mucous eyes with cool clean water and drip eye drops with anti-inflammatory action, for example, "Sulfacil-sodium" ("Albucid").
And if a mosquito bites on the lip, what to do in this case? To reduce the itching, a piece of ice is applied to the damaged area.
If you have an allergy - take the tablet "Suprastin", "Tavegil" or other antihistamines: "Zirtek", "Claritin", "Telfast". If you develop extensive swelling, difficulty breathing, or fever, consult your doctor.
Folk remedies for mosquito bites
To get rid of itching after mosquito bites the folk remedies will help:
leaves of plantain;
- cherry leaves;
- dandelion juice;
- onion juice;
- rub the skin with a cut onion;
- apply garlic to the place of bite;
- aloe juice;
- mint toothpaste;
- lotion from 3% vinegar.
Essential oils can be used. Calms the skin with tea tree oil, mint, lemon, rosemary. Some essential oils: eucalyptus, geranium, juniper - have an insect repellent effect.
How to treat mosquito bites in children
To children mosquitoes cause special inconveniences. Children's skin is very tender and reacts violently even to minor damages. How to smear mosquito bites in a child? Use alcohol, ice slices, lotion. For children over the age of two years, balm "Golden Star" is suitable. It is very important to distract the baby and convince him not to comb the itchy place.
How to smear mosquito bites for a child up to a year? Try to get by with folk remedies. It is not recommended to use strong antihistamine and anti-inflammatory ointments, but if necessary, consult a pediatrician.
The allergy in children to mosquito bites does not occur more often than in adults. An infant needs medical advice. The elder children in light cases can be given: "Suprastin", "Diazolin", "Fenkarol". When spreading edema, pronounced hives, respiratory disorders, you need to call an ambulance.
Folk remedies for mosquito bites for children
As folk remedies from mosquito bites for children use:
- soda in the form of a solution or slurry;
- tea tree oil;
- sour cream or curdled milk;
- mint toothpaste.
A good way to remove the itch from mosquito bites in a child is the lotion of leaves of dandelion, plantain, basil.
Summing up - mosquito bites are almost safe, but they deliver a lot of unpleasant sensations and can spoil your holiday in nature, especially if you have small children with you. To remove the itching and edema at the bite site, use simple means: alcohol, lotion, baking soda. Various pharmacy balms and ointments from insect bites work well.
Going to tropical countries, take measures to prevent infectious diseases that can be transmitted with mosquito bites.