What helps from mosquito bites
Oh, summer is red! I would love you, if not hot, yes dust, yes mosquitoes, yes flies. (A.S. Pushkin)
Summer outdoor recreation is often overshadowed by the attack of blood-sucking insects. Mosquitoes are widely distributed throughout Russia, and in the northern regions they are part of a community of blood-sucking insects, called the gnat.
How dangerous are they, can they be carriers of diseases and what helps mosquito bites?
What are dangerous mosquito bites?
More than 90 species of mosquitoes live in Russia. In the middle lane the most common:
- anopheles mosquito (genus Anopheles);
- spring mosquitoes of the genus Ochlerotatus;
- and autumn pike mosquitoes (Culex).
Mosquitoes are two-winged insects. Their males are completely harmless and feed on the nectar of plants, but females need the protein they get from animal and human blood to continue the race.
The blood of the female mosquito consumes only once, after which it lays eggs and dies. The bite itself can occur painlessly, but usually the person experiences discomfort similar to an injection. The insect selects areas with delicate skin and closely spaced blood vessels. It pierces the skin and the capillary wall with the proboscis and injects saliva containing anticoagulants - substances that prevent blood from clotting. Poisoning from mosquito bites is impossible, because mosquitoes do not have poison.
Anticoagulants cause swelling and redness of the skin at the puncture site, itching. If the bite is scratched, the mosquito saliva will spread to the surrounding tissues and the reaction will only increase.
Mosquito bites can cause trouble if there are a lot of them. Also, young children do not tolerate them well because of the itching that occurs.
More serious danger - allergic reactions and various transmissible diseases (infectious diseases transmitted with blood-sucking insects).
In central Russia, diseases transmitted with a mosquito bite are isolated cases.
Allergy to mosquito bites
Allergic reactions to mosquito bites occur less frequently and are not as strong as from the attack of biting insects - bees, wasps. Signs of developing allergies are:
- swelling of the skin in the field of prokus;
- temperature rise;
In extremely rare cases, allergies from mosquito bites can cause urticaria, vasomotor rhinitis and bronchospasm.
Mosquitoes as carriers of diseases
Infectious diseases that are transmitted through mosquito bites are found mainly in southern countries, mainly in the tropics. They can be of two types:
- diseases in which mosquitoes serve as mechanical carriers of pathogens;
- diseases in which the pathogen must live a certain time in the body of a mosquito.
The latter are most dangerous, but a sufficiently long cycle in a mosquito and the creation of a natural hearth from wild warm-blooded animals is necessary for the development of an infection, which may be only in hot countries. The infection is transmitted with the saliva of the female at the time of feeding with blood. In Russia, only three diseases are registered, while in the countries of the tropical belt there are several dozen. Therefore, going on an exotic trip, do not forget to clarify which vaccinations are recommended as a preventive measure.
- Malaria, or swamp fever - a group of diseases caused by protozoa. About 200 million people fall ill every year in the world, of which 600 thousand cases end in death. Up to 90% of cases occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Only the mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles tolerate malaria pathogens. In the 60s of the last century, the Soviet Union got rid of malaria, but nowadays there are isolated cases of the disease. These are mainly tourists arriving from countries with a hot climate: Afghanistan, India, Iran, Pakistan, Thailand, Cambodia, Myanmar, Vietnam and 22 African countries. What happens if the anopheles bite? There are malaria mosquitoes in Russia, but there is no malaria - that is, insects are free from the pathogen. In isolated cases, it is possible to become infected if the mosquito has previously bitten by a malaria patient. So, in 2010, 107 cases of the disease were registered, in 2012 - 86, in 2012 - 87, in 2013 - 95. With rare exceptions, all cases are imported. Disadvantaged for malaria are also visitors from Tajikistan and Azerbaijan. In Tajikistan, a hotbed of deadly tropical malaria has formed. As for the formation of foci on the territory of Russia, this possibility exists in hot years for the Krasnodar Territory, Astrakhan and Volgograd Regions, and Dagestan.
- Dirofilariasis - a parasitic disease caused by the development of nematode larvae - roundworms. A mosquito, a dog, and a human are involved in the developmental chain of the parasite. The disease is registered in the Moscow and Tula regions.
- A mosquito of the genus Culex (real mosquitoes) can serve as a carrier of tularemia - a zoonotic infection, including from animals to humans.
- In tropical countries, mosquitoes of the genus Aedes are carriers of various viral fevers. Dengue fever is common in the Caribbean, Central America and southern Central Asia, yellow fever in Africa and South America.
- Lymphatic filariasis (elephant skin) can be obtained by a mosquito bite in the tropical belt of Africa, Asia, South America, on the islands of the Pacific Ocean.
- Wipe the skin with medical alcohol or ammonia, or moisten with water to cool. Any skin lotion is also suitable.
- A good way to remove swelling from a mosquito bite is baking soda. It can be used in solution (half a teaspoon per cup of water) or as a slurry.
In our climate, itching and swelling is the biggest nuisance from mosquito attacks.
How to remove itching from a mosquito bite? There are some simple recipes.
How to smear mosquito bites so that they do not itch? The pharmacy sells a variety of means from insect bites in the form of ointments, balms, lotions, sprays and pencils. Such products include Star, Vitaon, Psilo-Balsam.
You can use antihistamine or anti-inflammatory ointment: "Sinaflan", "Advantan", "Fenistil-gel".
What to do if a mosquito has bitten in the eye? Wash the mucous eyes with cool clear water and drip eye drops with anti-inflammatory effects, for example, “Sulfacyl-sodium” (“Albucid”).
And if the mosquito has bitten in the lip, what to do in this case? To reduce itching, a piece of ice is applied to the damaged area.
If you have allergies - take a pill "Suprastin", "Tavegila" or other antihistamines: "Zirtek", "Claritin", "Telfast". If you develop extensive swelling, difficulty breathing, or fever, consult a doctor.
Folk remedies for mosquito bites
Get rid of the itch after mosquito bites will help folk remedies:
- black cherry leaves;
- dandelion juice;
- onion juice;
- rub the skin of the cut onion;
- attach garlic to bite;
- aloe juice;
- mint toothpaste;
- lotion from 3% vinegar.
You can use essential oils. Soothe skin tea tree oil, mint, lemon, rosemary. Some essential oils: eucalyptus, geranium, juniper - have an insect repellent effect.
How to treat mosquito bites in children
Mosquitoes cause special inconvenience to children. Children's skin is very delicate and reacts violently even to minor injuries. How to smear mosquito bites in a child? Use alcohol, pieces of ice, lotion. Children older than two years suitable balm "Golden Star". It is very important to distract the baby and convince him not to scratch an itchy place.
How to smear mosquito bites on a child under one year old? Try to do with folk remedies. It is not recommended to use potent antihistamine and anti-inflammatory ointments, but if necessary, consult a pediatrician.
Children’s allergies to mosquito bites occur no more often than adults. An infant is required to consult a doctor. Older children in light cases can be given: "Suprastin", "Diazolin", "Fenkrol." When the spread of edema, pronounced urticaria, respiratory disorders need to call an ambulance.
Folk remedies for mosquito bites for children
As folk remedies for mosquito bites for children use:
- soda in solution or slurry;
- tea tree oil;
- sour cream or clabber;
- mint toothpaste.
A good way to relieve the itch from mosquito bites in a child is lotions from a gruel of dandelion leaves, plantain, basil.
To summarize - mosquito bites are practically safe, but they bring a lot of unpleasant feelings and can spoil outdoor recreation, especially if you have small children. To relieve itching and swelling at the site of the bite, use simple means: alcohol, lotion, baking soda. Various pharmacy balms and insect bite ointments work well.
When traveling to tropical countries, take action to prevent infectious diseases that can be transmitted with mosquito bites.