What is detoxification of the body?
Almost every person can remember one or several situations in life when, after taking drugs or inhaling unfamiliar aerosols, he felt bad. Some simply witnessed the poisoning of close people with unfamiliar substances. But not everyone can boast of knowledge in the emergency aid to himself or another person during the development of such a problem.
How to act in case of poisoning? In addition to the necessary knowledge of the necessary actions, we also need first-aid equipment, which should be always at hand! This will be discussed today.
What is detoxification therapy?
A slightly frightening term is detoxification, by which we mean the destruction or neutralization of harmful toxic substances by various methods. These are chemical, biological or physical methods of inactivating substances. That is, in other words, detoxification is a method of treating acute or chronic poisoning.
To address the issue of neutralization of inhaled substances, first you should try to answer a number of questions:
- what the injured person could accept;
- reception time, exposure;
- dose of substance;
- the path of poison in the human body.
Despite the fact that in real life there is no time to gather information, it is necessary to act with lightning speed, trying to find answers to each of the above points. This is the only way to save a life. But often it is necessary to begin treatment immediately.
There are several classifications. According to the most common detoxification is divided:
- on natural or natural;
- artificial, created by man.
Artificial methods of neutralization, in turn, are also divided, they are:
Each of the proposed ways of removing harmful substances is additionally further subdivided into sub-paragraphs.
In addition, the following methods of detoxification can be distinguished:
- medicinal , for which use special drugs - antidotes, sorbents or antioxidants;
- non-drug , hemodialysis, plasmapheresis can be an example;
- when combining the above two methods, it is a combination detoxification .
Consider some types of destruction of toxic drugs in more detail.
Mechanisms of natural detoxification
These mechanisms work in our body daily, without interruption, recognizing, tying and removing unnecessary components for humans. These can be safely attributed to:
- Liver protection system - cytochrome oxidase barrier. This is the common name for a group of liver enzymes that enhance the chemical reactions of cleavage of foreign drugs, spoiled or aggressive (acute, fatty) foods that have entered the gastrointestinal tract.
- Immune cells also neutralize harmful substances, which include viruses, bacteria and other foreign structures for the body. Thanks to blood cells, they are captured and excreted.
- What is the natural excretory detoxification of the body? This is the work of all organs and systems together. The skin, the lungs, the liver, the kidneys, working smoothly, constantly remove the waste products into the external environment.
Artificial detoxification methods
The methods of artificial detoxification include the use of special drugs, washing the body and the so-called filtration methods, carried out only in the hospital.
Physical methods of cleaning the body
Such methods of neutralization can be carried out by everyone, even at home. This is a first aid to a person or to himself, which can be carried out by improvised means without special training and medical supplies. How can I help the victim before the arrival of the ambulance?
- Normal washing of the skin, eyes with running water or saline in case of ingress of substances on the mucous membrane of the eye or on the skin.
- If a person is conscious, immediately wash the stomach with warm water and induce vomiting. To do this, drink at least 3-5 liters of liquid at room temperature. Health workers inject at least 12-15 liters of water through a tube.
- In inhalation poisoning, detoxification therapy begins with the removal of the victim to the open air. Then he should be laid and freed from a tight tie, unbuttoned his shirt or blouse, and ensure the airway is passable. Next, emergency doctors will conduct, if necessary, intubation of the trachea (neck incision in the area of the trachea, followed by the introduction of the tube, to eliminate the possibility of suffocation during edema of the laryngeal mucosa) or inhalation of oxygen.
In other cases (if a person is unconscious or creates obstacles to first aid) - trust the professionals. In the hospital, in addition to the above procedures, they also do a cleansing enema for washing the intestines.
The physical methods of detoxification also include:
- peritoneal dialysis;
- plasma exchange.
Plasmapheresis is one of the well-known methods of blood purification. The essence of this procedure is to extract blood, which is divided into plasma and shaped elements in special devices.
Blood cells are returned back into the human body, and instead of plasma, solutions are injected that replace it. So, can clean up to one and a half liters of plasma.
This is the most simple and very effective method of detoxification.
What is detoxification through hemodialysis? This cleansing of the blood thanks to the apparatus "artificial kidney". This procedure is prescribed not only for acute poisoning, but also when the kidneys do not cope with their direct responsibilities.
The person is placed on a couch and using the systems is connected to the apparatus “artificial kidney” (there is a special membrane inside it, on which unwanted substances remain). From the bloodstream, the blood enters the device, passes through the cleaning system, while all the harmful substances remain in the dialyzer, and the pure biological fluid then returns through the vein to the body.
This cleaning method is used for the accelerated elimination of toxic substances, it can be carried out only in a hospital.
In case of acute poisoning, a fistula is hemmed to the abdominal wall - a tube for supplying the solution, through which a cleaning (dialysing) fluid is introduced into the abdominal cavity.
It is also called detoxification hemosorption. The technique resembles hemodialysis.
But, unlike him, blood is purified in special columns (detoxicator), which contain a simpler filler inside - activated charcoal or another sorbent that attracts harmful substances.
Biological Toxin Purification Techniques
In the case of biological detoxification, biological material is used. The organism is disinfected with the help of:
Vaccination in life is often carried out in order to prevent many infectious diseases. In cases of poisoning, attenuated vaccines can be administered to the human body in order to strengthen the immune system.
Serum is blood plasma without fibrinogen protein. It is used:
- after a snake bite (polyvalent protivosmeynaya serum);
- for botulinum toxin neutralization.
Chemical detoxification methods
Chemical methods is an attempt to clean the body of toxic substances with the help of detoxification drugs - antidotes.
The main approaches to the proper prescription of the antidote:
- it is important to ensure that the toxic substance no longer acts on the body;
- if specific antidotes are prescribed (against a certain substance) - you need to be sure that this toxin has hit the human body or inside it, otherwise the antidote can have a toxic effect.
Such treatment is most effective in the early stage of poisoning.
The main types of antidotes
Some types of antidotes and toxic substances against which they are directed:
- Activated carbon must be in the first-aid kit of each person. It can adsorb on itself hypnotic drugs, potent drugs (alkaloids).
- In case of poisoning with a toadstools, pilocarpine or cardiac glycosides, a 0.1% solution of atropine will be suitable as an antidote.
- Such a detoxification agent, as unithiol, will help if toxic iron compounds, methanol, lithium, cardiotoxic substances and cardiac glycosides, copper, lead and zinc, heavy metals are ingested.
- In case of overdose of antidiabetic drugs, glucose and glucagon are used.
- Ascorbic acid helps with the bites of reptiles.
- Paracetamol is inactivated by acetylcysteine and methionine.
- 5% thiamine solution is used for poisoning with ethyl alcohol.
These are the most common disinfectants. Of these, glucose, coal, ascorbic acid can most often be on hand. In all other and especially disputed cases, one should not rely at random, it is better to immediately take the person to the hospital.