What is the detoxification of the body?
Almost every person can recall one or several situations in life, when after taking medications or inhaling unfamiliar aerosols, he became ill. Some were simply eyewitnesses of poisoning close people with unfamiliar substances. But not everyone can boast of the knowledge of immediate help to himself or another person during the development of such a problem.
How to act when poisoning? In addition to the necessary knowledge about the necessary actions, we also need first aid means, which must always be at hand! This will be discussed today.
What is detoxification therapy?
A slightly frightening term is detoxification, which is understood as the destruction or neutralization of harmful toxic substances by various methods. These are chemical, biological or physical ways of inactivating substances. That is, in other words, detoxification is a method of treating acute or chronic poisoning.
To solve the problem of neutralizing the substances that have entered the body, you should first try to answer a number of questions:
- what the injured person could accept;
- time of reception, impact;
- the dose of the substance;
- the way of poison entering the human body.
Despite the fact that in real life there is no time to collect information, it is necessary to act promptly, trying to find answers to each of the above points. This is the only way to save life. But it is not uncommon to start treatment immediately.
Methods by which detoxification is carried out
There are several classifications. By the most common detoxification is divided:
- on the natural or natural;
- artificial, created by man.
Artificial methods of neutralization, in turn, also divide, they are:
Each of the proposed ways of removing harmful substances is further subdivided into sub-items.
In addition, the following detoxification methods can be distinguished:
- medicamentous , for which use special drugs - antidotes, sorbents or antioxidants;
- non-drug , an example could be hemodialysis, plasmapheresis;
- when two of the above methods are combined , it is a question of combined detoxification .
Consider some types of destruction of toxic drugs in more detail.
Mechanisms of natural detoxification
These mechanisms work in our body daily, without interruption, recognizing, binding and removing unnecessary components for humans. You can safely say:
- The liver protection system is a cytochrome oxidase barrier. This is a common name for a group of liver enzymes that enhance chemical reactions of cleavage of foreign medicines that are trapped in the gastrointestinal tract, spoiled or aggressive (acute, fatty) foods.
- Immune cells also detoxify harmful substances, which include viruses, bacteria and other structures that are foreign to the body. Thanks to the cells of the blood, their capture and excretion takes place.
- What is the natural excretory detoxification of the body? This is the work of all bodies and systems together. Skin, lungs, liver, kidneys, working in a coordinated manner, constantly remove the waste products to the external environment.
Methods of artificial detoxification
The methods of artificial detoxification include the use of special medicines, washing the body and the so-called filtration techniques, conducted only in the hospital.
Physical methods of cleaning the body
Such methods of neutralization can be carried out by everyone even at home. This is the first aid to a person or to himself, which can be carried out by improvised means without special training and medical supplies. How can I help the victim before the ambulance arrives?
- Routine rinsing of the skin, eye with running water or saline solution when substances get into the mucous membrane of the eye or on the skin.
- If a person is conscious - immediately wash the stomach with warm water and induce vomiting. To do this, you need to drink at least 3-5 liters of liquid at room temperature. Medical workers inject at least 12-15 liters of water through the probe.
- With inhalation poisoning, detoxification therapy begins with the removal of the victim to open air. Then it should be laid and released from a tight tie, unbuttoned shirt or blouse, to ensure the patency of the airways. Next, ambulance doctors will, if necessary, intubate the trachea (neck incision in the area of the passage of the trachea with the subsequent insertion of the tube to exclude the possibility of suffocation when swelling of the laryngeal mucosa) or inhalation of oxygen.
In other cases (if a person is unconscious or creates obstacles for first aid) - trust professionals. In the hospital, in addition to the above procedures, another purgative enema is made for lavage of the intestine.
The physical methods of detoxification are the same:
- peritoneal dialysis;
Plasmapheresis, this is one of the commonly known methods of purifying blood. The essence of this procedure is the extraction of blood, which in special devices is divided into plasma and uniform elements.
Blood cells are returned back to the human body, and instead of plasma injected solutions that replace it. So, can clean up to one and a half liters of plasma.
This is the most simple and very effective method of detoxification.
What is detoxification with hemodialysis? This is the purification of blood thanks to the apparatus "artificial kidney". This procedure is prescribed not only for acute poisoning, but also when the kidneys do not cope with their direct duties.
The person is laid on the couch and with the help of the systems an "artificial kidney" is connected to the apparatus (inside it there is a special membrane on which unnecessary substances remain). From the bloodstream, blood enters the device, passes through the purification system, while all harmful substances remain in the dialyzer, and the pure biological fluid then returns to the body via the vein.
Such a method of purification is used for accelerated elimination of toxic substances, it can be performed only in a hospital.
In case of acute poisoning, a fistula is sewn to the abdominal wall - a tube for bringing the solution through which a cleaning (dialyzing) liquid is introduced into the abdominal cavity.
It is also called detoxification hemosorption. The technique resembles hemodialysis.
But unlike it, the blood is purified in special columns (detoxifier), which inside contain a simpler filler - activated carbon or another sorbent, attracting harmful substances.
Biological methods for purification from toxins
In the case of biological detoxification, biological material is used. Disinfection of the body is carried out with the help of:
- blood serum.
Vaccination in life is often carried out in order to prevent many infectious diseases. In cases of poisoning, weakened vaccines may be introduced into the human body in order to strengthen immunity.
Serum is a blood plasma without fibrinogen protein. It is used:
- after a snake bite (antiserum polyvalent serum);
- for the neutralization of botulinum toxin.
Chemical methods of detoxification
Chemical methods, this is an attempt to cleanse the body of toxic substances with the help of detoxifying drugs - antidotes.
The main approaches to the correct use of the antidote:
- it is important to make sure that the toxic substance no longer acts on the body;
- if specific antidotes are prescribed (against a certain substance), one must be sure that the toxin has got onto the human body or inside it, otherwise the antidote can itself have a toxic effect.
The most effective treatment is at an early stage of poisoning.
The main types of antidotes
Some types of antidotes and poisonous substances against which they are directed:
- Activated charcoal should be in the first aid kit of each person. He can adsorb onto sleeping pills, potent medicines (alkaloids).
- When poisoning with fly agarics, pilocarpine or cardiac glycosides, 0.1% atropine solution is suitable as an antidote.
- Such a detoxifying agent, as unitiol, will help if toxic compounds of iron, methanol, lithium, cardiotoxic substances and cardiac glycosides, copper, lead and zinc, heavy metals get inside.
- In case of an overdose of antidiabetic drugs, glucose and glucagon are used.
- Ascorbic acid helps with reptile bites.
- Paracetamol is inactivated by acetylcysteine and methionine.
- 5% solution of thiamine is used for poisoning with ethyl alcohol.
These are the most common disinfectants. Among them, glucose, coal, ascorbic acid may be at hand most often. In all the rest and especially disputable cases, one should not rely at random, it is better to immediately deliver a person to the hospital.