Detoxification of the body from alcohol
As in the case with most toxic substances, distinguish between acute and chronic alcohol poisoning.
According to world statistics, most often acute poisoning with ethanol (ethyl alcohol - the main component of alcoholic beverages) occurs in the countries of the northern and middle latitudes. The population of these countries historically consumes a large number of strong alcoholic beverages.
The poisoning dose of alcohol
In different countries, the toxic dose varies, differs. This is due to ethnic, climatic and other factors.
In our country, a deadly single dose of ethanol is recognized as 12 g / kg body weight, that is, about 300 mg pure alcohol (96-98%).
This rule is valid only if the person is not sick with chronic alcoholism, that is the organism is not habitual (tolerant) to alcohol.
Mechanism of alcohol poisoning
It is common to divide alcohol poisoning into two phases:
- absorption (or resorption);
- allocation (elimination).
The first phase of absorption is the accumulation of alcohol and its degradation products in organs and tissues, so the toxic effect is intensified.
In the second phase of isolation, on the contrary, the poisonous agent withdrawal systems are activated, so a natural detoxification of the body from alcohol occurs.
It should be remembered that so-called light spirits (up to 30% strength) are absorbed faster than strong drinks (vodka, cognac, whiskey and others). Slow absorption of alcohol food filling the stomach, especially fat, but in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (eg, gastritis), absorption is faster due to damaged and inflamed, and therefore more permeable, gastric mucosa.
First aid for alcohol poisoning
First of all, it is necessary to understand how severe poisoning is. There are three degrees of alcohol intoxication:
In the latter case, a disorder of consciousness, from superficial to severe, is noted-the patient does not answer questions, the pupils react weakly to light, do not respond to pain, and breathing disorders may be noted. This is a coma, which is called alcohol.
Detoxification in case of alcohol poisoning at the prehospital stage should take place in several directions:
- prevent further absorption of the poison;
- accelerate the excretion of ethanol from the body;
- normalize metabolic disorders.
When poisoning is easy, you should wash the stomach of the patient. To do this, take 0.5-1 liter of water (preferably boiled) or a weak solution of potassium permanganate (manganese). You can drink all the volume at once, but you can and in small portions. After this, it is necessary to induce vomiting. The procedure is repeated twice or thrice - until the vomit is transparent and without the smell of ethanol.
When carrying out gastric lavage, care must be taken to ensure that vomit does not enter the respiratory tract. For this, the victim must be in an upright position, as far as possible.
After this procedure, you should take any adsorbing drug that "binds" the molecules of ethanol and will not allow it to be absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach and intestinal mucosa. It can be activated carbon, Polyphepanum, Enterosgel, Smecta or any other adsorbent.
An hour after washing the stomach should start rehydration - the restoration of the water-salt balance. Patients every half hour give a drink of 0.2-0.3 liters of water with the addition of table salt and sugar or a solution of "Regidron" in a similar dosage.
The next step is to accelerate the excretion of ethanol with laxatives and diuretics only as prescribed by the doctor.
Detoxication in a medical facility
How to remove toxins from the body after alcohol in the case of massive poisoning, can only be resolved by a qualified medical professional. Usually, the patient is placed in the intensive care unit, where ventilation of the lungs is carried out, gastric and intestinal flushing, intravenous drip medication to normalize the balance of fluid and salts, which is especially important after excessive vomiting. If there is psychosis at the exit from the alcoholic coma ("hot fever"), then psychotropic (soothing) drugs and medications that relax the muscles are added to the treatment regimen.
Features of detoxification in chronic alcoholism
There are two phases of alcoholism:
- chronic stage.
Detoxification therapy for alcoholism in the acute phase - that is, in the case of taking a large amount of alcohol, does not differ from that in acute poisoning. It is worthwhile, however, to bear in mind the predisposition of such patients to the development of renal failure, the reason for which is the perennial poisoning effect of ethanol and its derivatives - the products of the transformation of alcohol, in the body. It is necessary to monitor the amount of urine released, and if it is drastically reduced or absent within 4 hours - it is urgent to go to a medical hospital.
During the chronic phase of the disease, treatment should be directed primarily at maintaining natural mechanisms for neutralizing ethanol (improving the functioning of the liver and kidneys), and the mechanical removal of ethanol and its products fades into the background.
Cases of poisoning with surrogates of alcohol
We examined cases of ethanol poisoning and the main methods, and the principles of alcohol detoxification. But in clinical practice there are still poisonings and its surrogates - ethanol-like substances:
- hydrolysis and sulphite alcohols (obtained from wood);
- denatured alcohol (technical alcohol);
- colognes and lotions;
- glue BF;
- stain for wood;
- ethylene glycol;
The latter two substances are most similar to alcohol from the point of view of the layman and are deadly poisons. A distinctive feature of methanol poisoning is a partial or complete visual impairment. If suspected of poisoning with these substances, you should immediately deliver the victim to the hospital without trying to detoxify yourself.
When alcohol poisoning is mild enough simple measures aimed at slowing and preventing the absorption of ethanol in the gastrointestinal tract. With an average degree of poisoning requires the use of drugs that accelerate the excretion of alcohol from the body and often - the appointment of medications to normalize the work of certain organs, primarily the liver and heart. When severe poisoning is required, the patient needs multicomponent (complex) treatment, which is mandatory hospitalization in the intensive care unit.