Overdose of Ecstasy
Ecstasy (MDMA) is an expensive and dangerous drug, very common in society. Mortality due to taking this drug is very high. Many cases have been described, when a lethal outcome occurred after the first application. For a long time this drug has turned into a "club" and since then, the number of patients entering the intensive care unit with an overdose has increased hundreds of times.
But why someone dies from the first dose, and someone is not enough and several? Is there a lethal amount of the drug? What is this mysterious drug? What are the symptoms of overdose? How to provide first aid to a person with ecstasy poisoning?
What is Ecstasy?
Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, or 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine, or MDMA is a narcotic substance of the amphetamine group. Ecstasy was developed in 1912 by the company "Merck", and from the 70s became the most fashionable drug at parties.
But now it is almost impossible to find pure MDMA. Ecstasy can consist of a mixture of this substance with LSD, cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, MDA, MDE and even rat poison. The content of MDMA in these mixtures can vary considerably. This is what constitutes a danger. If the addict takes Ecstasy from an unknown trader, he does not know what is mixed in the mixture. And if the concentration of the main substance is small, it will increase the dose until it reaches the former buzz. Therefore, there are overdoses.
The MDMA drug is usually consumed in the form of tablets. Previously, so-called bombs were used - folds of tissue paper containing crystalline ecstasy, which had to be swallowed whole without chewing.
Less commonly, ecstasy is consumed by inhaling powder with the nose, adding to smoking mixtures, injections and even rectally. Tablets are more common because when inhaled through the nose the mucosa suffers greatly and bleeding often occurs, and with intravenous application, the effect is too abrupt, and adverse reactions are more pronounced.
A single dose of ecstasy, which is usually used - 120 mg. For one night, depending on the degree of addiction, drug users can consume 1 to 10 tablets. 1 tablet contains 60 to 100 mg of MDMA.
The action of ecstasy
After using ecstasy, the person experiences the following sensations:
- communication becomes easier, the stiffness in the relationship disappears;
- the disappearance of previously existing psychological problems and social barriers (feelings of guilt, isolation);
- exacerbation of sensations (from touch, sound, light);
- the need for love;
- pleasure from physical contact with other people;
- aggravation of empathy, sympathy;
- a sense of harmony and perfection;
- everything is perceived in a new way.
- thirst, dry mouth;
- increased heart rate (heart rate) and blood pressure;
- quickening of breathing;
- nausea, vomiting;
- gnashing of teeth;
- lack of appetite;
- increased body temperature;
- difficulty in urinating;
- violation of coordination of movements.
- nightmarish dreams;
- paranoid tendencies;
- memory impairment;
- decreased thinking ability;
- enlargement of the liver, jaundice;
- impaired renal function, chronic renal failure;
trembling of limbs and head;
- deterioration of the skin condition;
- psychological dependence;
- liver damage;
- hypertonic disease;
- heart attack;
- heart failure;
- defeat of the heart muscle;
- decreased potency.
Impurities in ecstasy tablets can contain hallucinogens that cause from pleasant, to horrible pictures in the mind. MDMA dulls the sense of danger, so a person under the influence of this substance may not be aware of the threat (for example, overheating, hypothermia). The harm of ecstasy is proved, therefore it refers to the forbidden narcotic substances of list 1.
The negative influence of ecstasy on the body:
The remote consequences of ecstasy:
Depression after ecstasy is the most common phenomenon. And it can reach such an extent that a person has suicidal thoughts.
The effect of ecstasy on potency is to reduce it. Negative effects on the reproductive system do not end there. MDMA impairs the quality of male sperm. Infertility is another negative consequence of the constant use of this drug.
Ecstasy in pregnancy is contraindicated, like any other drug. It is proved that it leads to a delay in development and various pathologies of the fetus.
Formation of dependence
Accustomed to ecstasy is formed less often than, for example, to heroin or cocaine. Studies in animals show that the attraction to the drug is weak and to abandon it independently is quite realistic. But sometimes dependence can still be formed. What are its causes?
- As mentioned earlier, more than 90% of the ecstasy sold is not pure MDMA, but a mixture into which other drugs can be added. That they are addictive.
- Ecstasy, like many other drugs, has this property: after the first dose, the effect of subsequent techniques decreases, so drug addicts are forced to increase the dosage of the drug. Increasing the dose leads to more pronounced side effects and increases the risk of overdose.
- To damp the negative effects of ecstasy, people in addition to it start taking other, stronger drugs, such as heroin, morphine, etc.
- Insufficient, and sometimes false, people's knowledge of the effects of ecstasy leads to the fact that they continue to take drugs not only at parties, weekends and clubs, but also at other times. Many believe that the harm of ecstasy is exaggerated.
Signs of MDMA use
Signs of ecstasy use appear 30-60 minutes after taking and last up to 8 hours (in some cases up to several days). The person becomes animated, his movements are more abrupt. There is no persistence in actions, he always switches from one occupation to another. Sociability is increased, there are attempts to bodily contact with others. Of the physiological signs of witnessing the use of ecstasy can:
- frequent pulse;
- dry skin;
- prolonged wakefulness;
- gnashing of teeth;
Consequences of an Ecstasy overdose
It was not possible to accurately determine the lethal dose of the drug. But it is known that its concentration in the blood of people who died from an overdose is about 0.17-13.51 mg / l. This concentration corresponds to taking 2 to 10 tablets. Why such a spread? The number of tablets from which death may occur depends on the individual characteristics of the organism and other factors (for example, drinking alcohol together with a drug). There are cases of death from an overdose of MDMA due to taking 1-2 tablets and cases of survival after eating 50 at once. In children, the lethal dose is reduced. Children are susceptible to an Ecstasy overdose if they find it from their parents.
What toxic effect does the ecstasy poisoning have on the body?
When an ecstasy overdose occurs, the body temperature rises to 40-42 ° C. Such hyperthermia leads to convulsions, denaturation of body proteins, cardiovascular disorders. Death can come from a collapse, a heart attack, failure of other organs, massive muscle necrosis.
- Reducing the level of sodium in the blood threatens edema of the brain, which leads to rapid death.
- Increased blood pressure and pulse can lead to hemorrhages in the brain or heart muscle.
- DIC-syndrome is a dangerous complication. The coagulation of blood first rises sharply, a large number of small blood clots are formed. Then follows a decrease in coagulation, bleeding, death.
- Ecstasy kills liver cells. When a large dose is used, liver failure and coma occur.
- In case of an overdose, panic and anxiety may occur instead of euphoria.
- Renal damage can lead to acute hepatic insufficiency.
Ecstasy and alcohol taken together is not recommended. According to some studies, ethanol does not affect the effects of the drug, on others - these substances are completely incompatible, and alcohol, along with MDMA, often leads to death.
First aid for an overdose of ecstasy
If the person who used ecstasy suddenly fell unconscious, you should first determine whether he is alive and, if necessary, carry out resuscitation measures. At this time, other people should call an ambulance.
If the victim is alive, first aid is to cool the body with cool baths, wiping, applying ice packs. Due to severe dehydration, rehydration will be required, that is, restoration of the fluid balance. To do this, drink the drug addict, but with a small amount of drinking with salts (" Regidron "), to perform intravenous injections of saline solutions. Before arriving an ambulance, you can not let a person lose consciousness.
Unfortunately, there is no antidote, no ecstasy. Therefore, the main treatment is not to disinfect it, but to remove it from the body as soon as possible.
How to remove ecstasy from the body? If a person used the drug inside, then as soon as possible you need to do a gastric lavage. Further removal of the drug from the body will be carried out in the hospital with the help of intravenous infusion of detoxification solutions.
Ecstasy is not a pure substance of MDMA, but a mixture containing other drugs and toxins. Because of this, his harm is much higher. "Tablet of Love" is the second name of this drug, but it is not true. After all, instead of love a person gets depressed, mental disorders, pathology of all organs, and sometimes even the first method can end in death. Short-term euphoria is not worth the health and life of a person!