Ecstasy (MDMA) is an expensive and dangerous drug that is very common in society. Mortality due to the use of this drug is very high. Many cases have been described where the death occurred after the first use. For a long time, this drug has become a “club” and since then, the number of patients with overdose entering the intensive care unit has increased hundreds of times.
But why someone dies from the first dose, and someone a little and a few? Is there a lethal amount of the drug? What is this mysterious drug? What are the symptoms of overdose? How to give first aid to a person with Ecstasy poisoning?
What is ecstasy
Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, or 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine, or MDMA, is a narcotic substance of the amphetamine group. Ecstasy was developed in 1912 by Merck, and since the 1970s it has become the most fashionable drug at parties.
But now almost not find pure MDMA. Ecstasy can consist of a mixture of this substance with LSD, cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, MDA, MDE, and even rat poison. The content of MDMA in these mixtures can vary considerably. This is precisely the danger. If an addict takes Ecstasy from an unknown merchant, he will not know what is in the mix. And if the concentration of the main substance is low, it will increase the dose until it reaches the previous high. Therefore, there are overdose.
The drug MDMA is usually ingested in pill form. Previously, the so-called bombs were spread — tissue paper rolls containing crystalline ecstasy that needed to be swallowed without chewing.
Less commonly, ecstasy is consumed - inhaling the powder with the nose, adding to the smoking mixture, in the form of injections, and even rectally. More common are pills, because when inhaled through the nose mucous is badly affected and bleeding often occurs, and when administered intravenously, the effect is too abrupt, and adverse reactions are more pronounced.
A single dose of Ecstasy, which is usually consumed - 120 mg. For one night, depending on the degree of addiction, drug addicts can consume from 1 to 10 tablets. 1 tablet contains from 60 to 100 mg MDMA.
After using ecstasy, a person has the following feelings:
- it becomes easier to communicate, the constraint in the relationship disappears;
- disappearance of previously existing psychological problems and social barriers (feelings of guilt, isolation);
- exacerbation of sensations (from touch, sound, light);
- the need for love;
- the pleasure of bodily contact with other people;
- aggravation of empathy, sympathy;
- sense of harmony and perfection;
- everything is perceived in a new way.
- thirst, dry mouth;
- increase in heart rate (HR) and blood pressure;
- increased breathing;
- nausea, vomiting;
- gnashing of teeth;
- lack of appetite;
- difficulty urinating;
- lack of coordination of movements.
- paranoid inclinations;
- memory impairment;
- decrease in mental abilities;
- enlarged liver, jaundice;
- renal failure, chronic renal failure;
trembling of the limbs and head;
- deterioration of the skin;
- psychological dependence;
- liver damage;
- hypertonic disease;
- heart attack;
- heart failure;
- damage to the heart muscle;
- decrease in potency.
Ecstasy tablet impurities may contain hallucinogens, which can range from pleasant to terrible pictures in the mind. MDMA dulls the sense of danger, so a person under the influence of this substance may not be aware of the threat (for example, overheating, overcooling). The harm of ecstasy is proven, so it belongs to the prohibited narcotic substances 1 list.
The negative effect of ecstasy on the body:
Remote effects of ecstasy:
Depression after ecstasy is the most common occurrence. Moreover, it can reach such an extent that a person has suicidal thoughts.
The effect of ecstasy on potency is to reduce it. The negative effects on the reproductive system do not end there. MDMA impairs male sperm quality. Infertility is another negative consequence of the constant use of this drug.
Ecstasy during pregnancy is contraindicated, like any other drug. It is proved that it leads to delayed development and various pathologies of the fetus.
Addiction to ecstasy is less common than, for example, heroin or cocaine. Animal studies show that the craving for a drug is weak and it is quite realistic to give it up on its own. But sometimes an addiction can still form. What are its causes?
- As mentioned earlier, more than 90% of the ecstasy being sold is not pure MDMA, but a mixture to which other drugs can be added. It is they that are addictive.
- Ecstasy, like many other drugs, has this property: after the first dose, the effect of subsequent administrations decreases, therefore drug addicts are forced to increase the dosage of the drug. Increasing the dose leads to more pronounced side effects and increases the risk of overdose.
- In order to stifle the negative effects of Ecstasy, people in addition to him begin to take other, more powerful drugs, such as heroin, morphine, etc.
- Insufficient and sometimes false awareness of people about the effects of ecstasy leads to the fact that they continue to take the drug not only at parties, weekends and clubs, but also at other times. Many people believe that the harm of ecstasy is exaggerated.
Signs of MDMA use
Signs of ecstasy use appear 30–60 minutes after taking and last up to 8 hours (in some cases up to several days). A person becomes animated, his movements are more abrupt. There is no consistency in actions, he always switches from one occupation to another. Sociability increased, there are attempts to bodily contact with others. From the physiological signs testify to the use of ecstasy can:
- rapid pulse;
- dry skin;
- prolonged wakefulness;
- gnashing of teeth;
Consequences of Ecstasy Overdose
Accurately determine the lethal dose of the drug has not yet succeeded. But it is known that its concentration in the blood of people who died from overdose is about 0.17-13.51 mg / l. This concentration corresponds to taking from 2 to 10 tablets. Why such a scatter? The number of pills on which death can occur depends on the individual characteristics of the body and other factors (for example, taking alcohol with a drug). There are cases of death from MDMA overdose due to taking 1-2 tablets and survival cases after consuming 50 pieces at once. In children, the lethal dose is reduced. Children are prone to an overdose of ecstasy if they find it with their parents.
What toxic effects on the body does ecstasy poisoning have?
In case of ecstasy overdose, the body temperature rises to 40–42 ° C. Such hyperthermia leads to convulsions, denaturation of body proteins, cardiovascular disorders. Death can occur from collapse, heart attack, failure of other organs, massive muscle necrosis.
- A decrease in sodium levels in the blood threatens brain edema, which leads to quick death.
- An increase in blood pressure and pulse can lead to bleeding in the brain or heart muscle.
- DIC is a dangerous complication. Coagulability of blood initially increases dramatically, a large number of small blood clots are formed. This is followed by a reduction in clotting, bleeding, death.
- Ecstasy kills liver cells. When consuming a large dose occurs liver failure and coma.
- In case of overdose, instead of euphoria, panic and anxiety can occur.
- Kidney damage can lead to acute liver failure.
Ecstasy and alcohol taken together is not recommended. According to some studies, ethanol does not affect the effects of the drug, while others - these substances are completely incompatible, and alcohol, along with MDMA, often leads to death.
First Aid for Ecstasy Overdose
If a person who used Ecstasy suddenly fell unconscious, you should first of all determine whether he is alive and, if necessary, carry out resuscitation. At this time, other people should call an ambulance.
If the victim is alive, first aid is to cool the body with the help of cool baths, rubbing, applying ice packs. Due to severe dehydration, rehydration is needed, that is, fluid balance recovery. To do this, you should give the drug addict a drink, but a small amount of drinking with salts (“ Regidron ”), and administer intravenous fluids of saline solutions. Before the arrival of the ambulance can not give a person to lose consciousness.
Unfortunately there is no antidote, Ecstasy. Therefore, the main treatment is not to neutralize it, but to remove it from the body as soon as possible.
How to remove ecstasy from the body? If a person consumed the drug inside, then as soon as possible you need to do a gastric lavage. Further removal of the drug from the body will be carried out in the hospital using intravenous infusion of detoxification solutions.
Ecstasy is not a pure MDMA substance, but a mixture containing other drugs and toxins. Because of this, his harm is greatly increased. “Love pill” is the second name of this drug, but it is not true. After all, in the end, instead of love, a person gets depression, mental disorders, the pathology of all organs, and sometimes even the first reception can end in death. Short-term euphoria is not worth the health and life of a person!