How to do artificial respiration and indirect heart massage

женщина отравилась Poisoning with certain substances can cause respiratory arrest and palpitations. In such a situation, help to the victim is needed immediately. But there may not be doctors nearby, and an ambulance will not arrive in 5 minutes. Each person should know and be able to put into practice at least the main resuscitation measures. These include artificial respiration and an external heart massage. Most people probably know what it is, but they do not always know how to properly perform these actions in practice.

Let's find out in this article, under what kind of poisoning may occur clinical death, what kind of human resuscitation techniques exist, and how to properly perform artificial respiration and indirect heart massage.

What poisoning is possible to stop breathing and heartbeat

Death as a result of acute poisoning can happen from anything. The main causes of death in poisoning are cessation of breathing and heartbeat.

массаж сердца и искусственное дыхание

Arrhythmia, atrial and ventricular fibrillation, and cardiac arrest can cause:

  • drugs from the group of cardiac glycosides;
  • Obzidan, Izoptin;
  • лекарство, которое может вызвать остановку сердца при передозировке barium and potassium salts;
  • some antidepressants;
  • organophosphate compounds;
  • quinine;
  • cemeric water;
  • adrenoblockers;
  • calcium antagonists;
  • fluorine.

When do I need artificial respiration? Respiratory arrest occurs due to poisoning:

  • drugs, sleeping pills, inert gases (nitrogen, helium);
  • intoxication with substances based on organophosphorus compounds used to control insects;
  • Лекарство, которое может вызвать остановку дыхания curariform drugs;
  • strychnine, carbon monoxide, ethylene glycol;
  • benzene;
  • hydrogen sulfide;
  • nitrites;
  • potassium cyanide, hydrocyanic acid;
  • "Dimedrol";
  • alcohol.

In the absence of breathing or a heartbeat, clinical death occurs. It can last from 3 to 6 minutes, during which there is a chance to save a person if you start to do artificial respiration and an indirect heart massage. After 6 minutes, it is still possible to bring a person back to life, but as a result of severe hypoxia, the brain undergoes irreversible organic changes.

When to start resuscitation

What if a person falls unconscious? First you need to identify signs of life. Heart beat can be heard by putting the ear to the victim's chest or by feeling the pulse on the carotid arteries. Breathing can be detected by the movement of the chest, leaning toward the face and listening to the presence of inhalation and exhalation, bringing the mirror to the victim's nose or mouth (it will sweat when breathing).

проверить дышит ли человек
breath test

If there is a lack of breathing or a heartbeat, you should immediately begin resuscitation.

How to do artificial respiration and indirect heart massage? What techniques exist? The most common, accessible to everyone and effective:

  • external heart massage;
  • mouth to mouth breathing;
  • breath from mouth to nose.

It is advisable to conduct receptions for two people. Heart massage is always carried out with artificial ventilation.

Procedure in the absence of signs of life

  1. Release the respiratory organs (oral, nasal cavity, pharynx) from possible foreign bodies.
  2. If there is a heartbeat, but the person does not breathe, only artificial respiration is done.
  3. If there is no heartbeat, artificial respiration and an indirect heart massage are performed.

How to do an indirect heart massage

The technique of performing an indirect massage of the heart is simple, but it requires the right actions.

  1. The person is placed on a rigid surface, the upper part of the body is freed from clothing.
  2. For a closed heart massage, the resuscitator kneels to the side of the victim.
  3. техника непрямого массажа сердца With the base maximally extended, the palm is placed on the middle of the chest two to three centimeters above the sternal end (the meeting place of the ribs).
  4. Where is the pressure on the chest with a closed heart massage? The point of maximum pressure should be in the center, not on the left, because the heart, contrary to the general opinion, is located in the middle.
  5. The thumb should be facing the chin or stomach of a person. The second hand is placed on top crosswise. Fingers should not touch the patient, the palm should be put the basis and to be as much as possible unbent.
  6. Pressing into the heart is done with straight arms, elbows do not bend. The pressure should be all weight, not just hands. The shocks should be so strong that the chest of an adult person fell by 5 centimeters.
  7. With what frequency of pressure is an indirect heart massage performed? Press the sternum at intervals of at least 60 times per minute. It is necessary to focus on the elasticity of the sternum of a particular person, exactly how it returns to the opposite position. For example, in an elderly person, the frequency of pressing can be no more than 40–50, and in children it can reach 120 or higher.
  8. How many breaths and pressures do with artificial respiration? With the alternation of indirect massage of the heart with artificial ventilation of the lungs, 2 breaths are taken for 30 strokes.

Why indirect massage of the heart is impossible if the victim lies on the soft? In this case, the pressure will refuse not on the heart, but on a supple surface.

Very often, with an indirect massage of the heart, the ribs are broken. It is not necessary to fear this, the main thing is to revive the person, and the ribs will grow together. But keep in mind that broken edges are most likely the result of improper performance and you should moderate the force of depression.

If in the mouth of a poisoned person there is a dangerous discharge for the resuscitator like poison, poisonous gas from the lungs, an infection, then artificial respiration is not necessary! In this case, it is necessary to confine to conducting an indirect massage of the heart, during which, due to pressure on the sternum, about 500 ml of air is released and sucked in again.

How to do mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration?

  1. человек делает пострадавшему искусственное дыхание изо рта в рот The victim must be given a horizontal position with his head thrown back. Under the neck you can put a roller or arm. If there is a suspicion of a fracture of the cervical spine, it is impossible to throw back the head.
  2. The lower jaw must be pushed forward and downwards. Free your mouth from saliva and vomit.
  3. Holding the open jaw with the affected person with one hand, the second one needs to firmly hold his nose, take a deep breath and exhale as much as possible into his mouth.
  4. The frequency of air injections per minute during artificial respiration is 10–12.

It is recommended for the sake of your own safety that artificial respiration is best done through a napkin, while controlling the pressure density and avoiding the “leakage” of air. The exhalation should not be sharp. Only a strong, but smooth (within 1–1.5 seconds) exhalation will ensure the correct movement of the diaphragm and the filling of the lungs with air.

Breathing from mouth to nose

врач восстанавливает пострадавшему дыхание
artificial respiration from mouth to nose

A mouth-to-nose artificial respiration is performed if the patient cannot open his mouth (for example, due to a spasm).

  1. Having laid the victim on a straight surface, throw back his head (if there are no contraindications for this).
  2. Check the patency of the nasal passages.
  3. If possible, the jaw should be advanced.
  4. After the maximum inhalation, you need to blow air into the nose of the injured person, tightly closing his mouth with one hand.
  5. After one breath, count to 4 and take the next one.

Features of the resuscitation of children

In children, resuscitation technique differs from that in adults. The chest of babies up to one year is very delicate and fragile, the heart area is smaller than the base of the palm of an adult person, therefore the pressure with an indirect heart massage is made not with the palms, but with two fingers. The movement of the chest should be no more than 1.5-2 cm. The frequency of pressing at least 100 per minute. At the age of 1 to 8 years, the massage is done with one palm. The chest should move 2.5-3.5 cm. It is necessary to perform massage with a frequency of about 100 presses per minute. The ratio of inspiration to pressing on the chest in children under 8 years should be 2/15, in children over 8 years old - 1/15.

How to make artificial respiration to a child? Children artificial respiration can be performed by the technique "from mouth to mouth." Since babies have a small face, an adult can perform artificial respiration by immediately covering both the mouth and the nose of the child. Then the method is called “from mouth to mouth and nose”. Artificial respiration to children is done with a frequency of 18-24 per minute.

How to determine whether resuscitation is performed correctly

Signs of effectiveness in compliance with the rules for performing artificial respiration are as follows.

  1. у человека восстанавливается дыхание
    breathing process

    When properly performing artificial respiration, you can notice a movement of the chest up and down during passive inhalation.

  2. If the movement of the chest is weak or late, you need to understand the reasons. Probably, a loose adherence of the mouth to the mouth or nose, a shallow breath, a foreign body that prevents air from reaching the lungs.
  3. If when breathing in air, the chest does not rise, but the abdomen, then this means that the air did not go through the airways, but through the esophagus. In this case, you need to press on the stomach and turn the patient's head to the side, as vomiting is possible.

The effectiveness of the heart massage should also be checked every minute.

  1. If, when performing an indirect massage of the heart, an impulse appears on the carotid artery, like a pulse, it means that the force of the pressure is sufficient to allow blood to flow to the brain.
  2. With proper resuscitation, the victim will soon have heart contractions, pressure will rise, spontaneous breathing will appear, the skin will become less pale, the pupils will narrow.

врачи фото

Perform all actions need at least 10 minutes, and it is better before the arrival of an ambulance. With continued heartbeat, artificial respiration should be performed for a long time, up to 1.5 hours.

If the resuscitation measures are ineffective for 25 minutes, the victim developed cadaverous spots, a symptom of a cat's pupil (when pressing on the eyeball, the pupil becomes vertical, like a cat) or the first signs of rigor mortis - all actions can be stopped, as biological death has occurred.

The earlier resuscitation actions are initiated, the greater the likelihood of a person returning to life. Proper implementation will not only help to revive, but also provide vital organs with oxygen and prevent their death and disability of the victim.

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Age of the victim

How to press Push point Depth of depression Click frequency

Inhalation / depression ratio

Age up to 1 year

2 fingers 1 finger below the weft line 1.5–2 cm 120 and more 2/15

Age 1–8 years

1 hand

2 fingers from the sternum

3-4 cm

100–120

2/15

Adult 2 hands 2 fingers from the sternum 5–6 cm 60–100 2/30