How to do artificial respiration and indirect heart massage
Poisoning with certain substances can cause respiratory arrest and palpitations. In such a situation, help to the victim is needed immediately. But there may not be doctors nearby, and an ambulance will not arrive in 5 minutes. Each person should know and be able to put into practice at least the main resuscitation measures. These include artificial respiration and an external heart massage. Most people probably know what it is, but they do not always know how to properly perform these actions in practice.
Let's find out in this article, under what kind of poisoning may occur clinical death, what kind of human resuscitation techniques exist, and how to properly perform artificial respiration and indirect heart massage.
What poisoning is possible to stop breathing and heartbeat
Death as a result of acute poisoning can happen from anything. The main causes of death in poisoning are cessation of breathing and heartbeat.
Arrhythmia, atrial and ventricular fibrillation, and cardiac arrest can cause:
- drugs from the group of cardiac glycosides;
- "Obzidan", "Izoptin";
- barium and potassium salts;
- some antidepressants;
- organophosphate compounds;
- cemeric water;
- adrenergic blockers;
- calcium antagonists;
When do I need artificial respiration? Respiratory arrest occurs due to poisoning:
- drugs, sleeping drugs, inert gases (nitrogen, helium);
- intoxication with substances based on organophosphorus compounds used to control insects;
- curariform drugs;
- strychnine, carbon monoxide, ethylene glycol;
- hydrogen sulfide;
- potassium cyanide, hydrocyanic acid;
In the absence of breathing or a heartbeat, clinical death occurs. It can last from 3 to 6 minutes, during which there is a chance to save a person if you start to do artificial respiration and an indirect heart massage. After 6 minutes, it is still possible to bring a person back to life, but as a result of severe hypoxia, the brain undergoes irreversible organic changes.
When to start resuscitation
What if a person falls unconscious? First you need to identify signs of life. Heartbeat can be heard by putting the ear to the victim's chest or feeling the pulse on the carotid arteries. Breathing can be detected by the movement of the chest, leaning toward the face and listening to the presence of inhalation and exhalation, bringing the mirror to the victim's nose or mouth (it will sweat when breathing).
If there is a lack of breathing or a heartbeat, resuscitation should begin immediately.
How to do artificial respiration and indirect heart massage? What techniques exist? The most common, accessible to everyone and effective:
- external heart massage;
- breath from mouth to mouth;
- breath from mouth to nose.
It is advisable to conduct receptions for two people. Heart massage is always carried out with artificial ventilation.
Procedure in the absence of signs of life
- Release the respiratory organs (oral, nasal cavity, pharynx) from possible foreign bodies.
- If there is a heartbeat, but the person does not breathe, only artificial respiration is done.
- If there is no heartbeat, artificial respiration and an indirect heart massage are performed.
How to do an indirect heart massage
The technique of performing an indirect massage of the heart is simple, but it requires the right actions.
- The person is placed on a rigid surface, the upper part of the body is freed from clothing.
- For a closed heart massage, the resuscitator kneels to the side of the victim.
- The base of the most extended arm is placed on the middle of the chest two to three centimeters above the sternal end (the meeting place of the ribs).
- Where is the pressure on the chest with a closed heart massage? The point of maximum pressure should be in the center, not on the left, because the heart, contrary to general opinion, is located in the middle.
- The thumb should be facing the chin or stomach of a person. The second hand is placed on top crosswise. Fingers should not touch the patient, the palm should be put the basis and to be as much as possible unbent.
- Pressing into the heart is done with straight arms, elbows do not bend. The pressure should be all weight, not just hands. The shocks should be so strong that the chest of an adult person fell by 5 centimeters.
- With what frequency of pressure is an indirect heart massage performed? Press the sternum at intervals of at least 60 times per minute. It is necessary to focus on the elasticity of the sternum of a particular person, namely, how it returns to the opposite position. For example, in an elderly person, the frequency of pressing can be no more than 40–50, and in children it can reach 120 or higher.
- How many breaths and pressures do with artificial respiration? With the alternation of an indirect heart massage with artificial ventilation of the lungs, 2 breaths are taken for 30 strokes.
Why indirect massage of the heart is impossible if the victim lies on the soft? In this case, the pressure will refuse not on the heart, but on a supple surface.
Very often, with an indirect heart massage, the ribs are broken. It is not necessary to be afraid of this, the main thing is to revive the person, and the ribs will grow together. But keep in mind that broken edges are most likely the result of improper performance and you should moderate the force of depression.
Age of the victim
|How to press||Push point||Depth of depression||Click frequency|
Inhalation / depression ratio
Age up to 1 year
|2 fingers||1 finger below the weft line||1.5–2 cm||120 and more||2/15|
Age 1–8 years
2 fingers from the sternum
|Adult||2 hands||2 fingers from the sternum||5–6 cm||60–100||2/30|