How to do artificial respiration and indirect heart massage
Poisoning by certain substances can cause a stop of breathing and palpitation. In such a situation, the victim needs help immediately. But nearby there may not be doctors, and an ambulance will not arrive in 5 minutes. Everyone should know and be able to apply at least basic resuscitation measures in practice. These include artificial respiration and external cardiac massage. Most people probably know what it is, but they do not always know how to properly implement these actions in practice.
Let's find out in this article, under what poisoning can clinical death occur, what kind of resuscitation techniques exist for man, and how to do artificial respiration and indirect heart massage.
At what poisoning is possible the stop of respiration and palpitation
Death as a result of acute poisoning can happen from anything. The main causes of death due to poisoning are the cessation of breathing and palpitation.
Arrhythmia, atrial and ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest can cause:
- preparations from the group of cardiac glycosides;
- "Obsidan", "Isoptin";
- salts of barium and potassium;
- some antidepressants;
- organophosphorus compounds;
- crooked water;
- calcium antagonists;
In what cases is it necessary to do artificial respiration? Stopping breathing happens due to poisoning:
- drugs, sleeping pills, inert gases (nitrogen, helium);
- intoxication with substances based on organophosphorus compounds used to control insects;
- with curare-like preparations;
- strychnine, carbon monoxide, ethylene glycol;
- hydrogen sulphide;
- potassium cyanide, hydrocyanic acid;
In the absence of breathing or palpitation, clinical death occurs. It can last from 3 to 6 minutes, during which it is possible to save a person if you start to do artificial respiration and indirect heart massage. After 6 minutes to return a person to life is still possible, but as a result of severe hypoxia, the brain is subjected to irreversible organic changes.
When to start resuscitation
What if the person falls unconscious? First you need to determine the signs of life. Heartbeat can be heard by attaching an ear to the victim's chest or probing the pulse on the carotid arteries. Breathing can be detected by the movement of the chest, bending over to the face and listening to the presence of inspiration and exhalation, bringing a mirror to the nose or mouth of the victim (it will mist over while breathing).
If there is a lack of breathing or heart beat, you should immediately begin resuscitation.
How to do artificial respiration and indirect heart massage? What methods exist? The most common, available to everyone and effective:
- external cardiac massage;
- breathing "from mouth to mouth";
- breathing "from mouth to nose".
It is desirable to conduct receptions to two people. Heart massage is always performed together with artificial ventilation.
Procedure for the absence of signs of life
- Release respiratory organs (mouth, nasal cavity, pharynx) from possible foreign bodies.
- If there is a palpitation, but a person does not breathe, only artificial respiration is done.
- If there is no palpitation, artificial respiration and indirect heart massage are performed.
How to do an indirect heart massage
The technique of performing indirect heart massage is simple, but requires the right actions.
- The person is laid on a hard surface, the upper part of the trunk is freed from clothing.
- To carry out a closed heart massage, the resuscitator kneels on the side of the victim.
- The maximum unbent palm of the base is placed on the middle of the chest by two to three centimeters above the sternal end (the meeting place of the ribs).
- Where is pressure applied to the chest with a closed heart massage? The point of maximum pressure should be in the center, and not on the left, because the heart, contrary to popular opinion, is located in the middle.
- The thumb of the hand should be facing the person's chin or belly. The second palm is placed on top crosswise. The fingers should not touch the patient, the palm should be placed in the base and be maximally straightened.
- Pressing in the heart area is done with straight hands, elbows do not bend. The pressure should be all weight, not just hands. The tremors should be so strong that the adult's chest ribs fall 5 centimeters.
- With what frequency of pressure is an indirect cardiac massage performed? Press the sternum should be at a frequency of at least 60 times per minute. It is necessary to focus on the elasticity of the sternum of a particular person, namely how she returns to the opposite position. For example, in an elderly person, the frequency of clicks can be no more than 40-50, while in children it can reach 120 or higher.
- How many breaths and breaths do you have with artificial respiration? When alternating indirect heart massage with artificial ventilation of the lungs for 30 shocks, 2 breaths are done.
Why indirect cardiac massage is impossible if the victim lies on the soft? In this case, the pressure will be rejected not on the heart, but on a supple surface.
Very often, with an indirect massage of the heart, ribs are broken. It is not necessary to be afraid of this, the main thing is to revive the person, and the ribs will grow together. But you need to take into account that the broken edges are most likely the result of incorrect execution and you should moderate the force of pressing.
Age of the victim
|Than to press||Point of depression||Depth of depression||Frequency of pressing|
Inhalation / depression ratio
Age before 1 year
|2 fingers||1 finger below the interlabial line||1.5-2 cm||120 and more||2/15|
Age 1-8 years
2 fingers from the sternum
|Adult||2 hands||2 fingers from the sternum||5-6 cm||60-100||2/30|