How to do artificial respiration and indirect heart massage

женщина отравилась Poisoning by certain substances can cause a stop of breathing and palpitation. In such a situation, the victim needs help immediately. But nearby there may not be doctors, and an ambulance will not arrive in 5 minutes. Everyone should know and be able to apply at least basic resuscitation measures in practice. These include artificial respiration and external cardiac massage. Most people probably know what it is, but they do not always know how to properly implement these actions in practice.

Let's find out in this article, under what poisoning can clinical death occur, what kind of resuscitation techniques exist for man, and how to do artificial respiration and indirect heart massage.

At what poisoning is possible the stop of respiration and palpitation

Death as a result of acute poisoning can happen from anything. The main causes of death due to poisoning are the cessation of breathing and palpitation.

массаж сердца и искусственное дыхание

Arrhythmia, atrial and ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest can cause:

  • preparations from the group of cardiac glycosides;
  • "Obsidan", "Isoptin";
  • лекарство, которое может вызвать остановку сердца при передозировке salts of barium and potassium;
  • some antidepressants;
  • organophosphorus compounds;
  • quinine;
  • crooked water;
  • adrenoblockers;
  • calcium antagonists;
  • fluorine.

In what cases is it necessary to do artificial respiration? Stopping breathing happens due to poisoning:

  • drugs, sleeping pills, inert gases (nitrogen, helium);
  • intoxication with substances based on organophosphorus compounds used to control insects;
  • Лекарство, которое может вызвать остановку дыхания with curare-like preparations;
  • strychnine, carbon monoxide, ethylene glycol;
  • benzene;
  • hydrogen sulphide;
  • nitrites;
  • potassium cyanide, hydrocyanic acid;
  • "Dimedrol";
  • alcohol.

In the absence of breathing or palpitation, clinical death occurs. It can last from 3 to 6 minutes, during which it is possible to save a person if you start to do artificial respiration and indirect heart massage. After 6 minutes to return a person to life is still possible, but as a result of severe hypoxia, the brain is subjected to irreversible organic changes.

When to start resuscitation

What if the person falls unconscious? First you need to determine the signs of life. Heartbeat can be heard by attaching an ear to the victim's chest or probing the pulse on the carotid arteries. Breathing can be detected by the movement of the chest, bending over to the face and listening to the presence of inspiration and exhalation, bringing a mirror to the nose or mouth of the victim (it will mist over while breathing).

проверить дышит ли человек
breath test

If there is a lack of breathing or heart beat, you should immediately begin resuscitation.

How to do artificial respiration and indirect heart massage? What methods exist? The most common, available to everyone and effective:

  • external cardiac massage;
  • breathing "from mouth to mouth";
  • breathing "from mouth to nose".

It is desirable to conduct receptions to two people. Heart massage is always performed together with artificial ventilation.

Procedure for the absence of signs of life

  1. Release respiratory organs (mouth, nasal cavity, pharynx) from possible foreign bodies.
  2. If there is a palpitation, but a person does not breathe, only artificial respiration is done.
  3. If there is no palpitation, artificial respiration and indirect heart massage are performed.

How to do an indirect heart massage

The technique of performing indirect heart massage is simple, but requires the right actions.

  1. The person is laid on a hard surface, the upper part of the trunk is freed from clothing.
  2. To carry out a closed heart massage, the resuscitator kneels on the side of the victim.
  3. техника непрямого массажа сердца The maximum unbent palm of the base is placed on the middle of the chest by two to three centimeters above the sternal end (the meeting place of the ribs).
  4. Where is pressure applied to the chest with a closed heart massage? The point of maximum pressure should be in the center, and not on the left, because the heart, contrary to popular opinion, is located in the middle.
  5. The thumb of the hand should be facing the person's chin or belly. The second palm is placed on top crosswise. The fingers should not touch the patient, the palm should be placed in the base and be maximally straightened.
  6. Pressing in the heart area is done with straight hands, elbows do not bend. The pressure should be all weight, not just hands. The tremors should be so strong that the adult's chest ribs fall 5 centimeters.
  7. With what frequency of pressure is an indirect cardiac massage performed? Press the sternum should be at a frequency of at least 60 times per minute. It is necessary to focus on the elasticity of the sternum of a particular person, namely how she returns to the opposite position. For example, in an elderly person, the frequency of clicks can be no more than 40-50, while in children it can reach 120 or higher.
  8. How many breaths and breaths do you have with artificial respiration? When alternating indirect heart massage with artificial ventilation of the lungs for 30 shocks, 2 breaths are done.

Why indirect cardiac massage is impossible if the victim lies on the soft? In this case, the pressure will be rejected not on the heart, but on a supple surface.

Very often, with an indirect massage of the heart, ribs are broken. It is not necessary to be afraid of this, the main thing is to revive the person, and the ribs will grow together. But you need to take into account that the broken edges are most likely the result of incorrect execution and you should moderate the force of pressing.

If in the mouth of the poisoned person remained a secretion dangerous for the reanimator like poison, poisonous gas from the lungs, an infection, then it is not necessary to carry out artificial respiration! In this case, we must confine ourselves to indirect heart massage, during which, due to pressure on the sternum, about 500 ml of air is ejected and again absorbed.

How to do artificial mouth-to-mouth breathing?

  1. человек делает пострадавшему искусственное дыхание изо рта в рот The victim should be given a horizontal position with his head thrown back. Under the neck, you can put a roller or hand. If there is a suspicion of a fracture of the cervical spine, then you can not toss your head back.
  2. The lower jaw needs to be pushed forward and down. Mouth release from saliva and vomit.
  3. Holding one hand by the open jaw of the injured person, the second one needs to tighten his nose tightly, take a deep breath and exhale as much as possible into his mouth.
  4. The frequency of air injection per minute during artificial respiration is 10-12.

It is recommended to make artificial respiration through a napkin for your own safety, while controlling the tightness of the pressure and not allowing "leakage" of air. The exhalation should not be sharp. Only strong, but smooth (within 1-1,5 seconds) exhalation will ensure correct movement of the diaphragm and filling the lungs with air.

Artificial respiration from the mouth to the nose

врач восстанавливает пострадавшему дыхание
artificial respiration from the mouth to the nose

Artificial respiration "mouth to nose" is performed in case the patient can not open his mouth (for example, because of a spasm).

  1. Lay the victim on a straight surface, throw back his head (if for this there are no contraindications).
  2. Check the patency of the nasal passages.
  3. If possible, the jaw needs to be extended.
  4. After the maximum inhalation, it is necessary to blow air in the nose to the injured person, one hand tightly covering his mouth.
  5. After one breath, count to 4 and do the next.

Features of resuscitation in children

In children, the resuscitation technique is different from that of adults. The baby's chest for a year is very tender and fragile, the heart area is smaller than the base of the palm of an adult person, so pressing with an indirect massage of the heart is not done with the palms, but with two fingers. The movement of the chest should be no more than 1.5-2 cm. The frequency of pressing is not less than 100 per minute. At the age of 1 year to 8 years, massage is done with one hand. The thorax should move on 2,5-3,5 see To carry out massage it is necessary with a frequency about 100 nadavlivany in a minute. The ratio of inspiration to depression on the chest in children under 8 years should be 2/15, in children older than 8 years - 1/15.

How to do artificial respiration for a child? For children, artificial respiration can be performed using the technique "from mouth to mouth". Since babies have a small face, an adult can carry out artificial respiration by covering both the mouth and the child's nose. Then the method is called "from mouth to mouth and nose". Artificial respiration for children is done at a frequency of 18-24 per minute.

How to determine whether the resuscitation is performed correctly

Symptoms of efficacy in compliance with the rules for performing artificial respiration are as follows.

  1. у человека восстанавливается дыхание
    breathing process

    With proper performance of artificial respiration, one can notice the movement of the chest up and down during a passive inspiration.

  2. If the movement of the chest is weak or lagging, you need to understand the reasons. Probably a loose mouth to mouth or to the nose, a shallow breath, a foreign body, which prevents air from reaching the lungs.
  3. If, with the inhalation of air, it is not the thorax, but the stomach that rises, it means that the air has gone not along the airways, but along the esophagus. In this case, you need to press on the stomach and turn the patient's head sideways, as it is possible vomiting.

The effectiveness of heart massage should also be checked every minute.

  1. If, during the performance of an indirect massage of the heart, there is a push on the carotid artery, similar to the pulse, then the force of depression is sufficient to allow blood to flow to the brain.
  2. With the correct implementation of resuscitation, the victim will soon have cardiac contractions, pressure will rise, independent breathing will appear, the skin will become less pale, the pupils will narrow.

врачи фото

Do all the actions need at least 10 minutes, but better before the arrival of an ambulance. With the remaining heartbeat, artificial respiration should be performed for a long time, up to 1.5 hours.

If the resuscitation measures are ineffective for 25 minutes, the victim has corpse stains, a symptom of the cat's pupil (when pressing on the eyeball the pupil becomes vertical, like a cat) or the first signs of rigor - all actions can be stopped, as biological death has come.

The earlier the resuscitation has begun, the more likely the person will return to life. Properly performing them will help not only to return to life, but also to provide vital organs with oxygen, to prevent their death and disability of the victim.

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Age of the victim

Than to press Point of depression Depth of depression Frequency of pressing

Inhalation / depression ratio

Age before 1 year

2 fingers 1 finger below the interlabial line 1.5-2 cm 120 and more 2/15

Age 1-8 years

1 hand

2 fingers from the sternum

3-4 cm

100-120

2/15

Adult 2 hands 2 fingers from the sternum 5-6 cm 60-100 2/30