How to measure the level of radiation in the apartment
The word "radiation" is usually associated with Hiroshima, Chernobyl, Fukushima and other catastrophic events in the history of mankind.
But unfortunately, the danger of radiation exposure lurks people not only at nuclear facilities, but also within the walls of their own home. Is the seriousness of this threat so great? Only awareness in this matter can give a correct assessment of the radiation level of your home.
What and how does this level affect? Is it in our power to protect ourselves and our loved ones from its destructive influence?
What is the normal background radiation apartment
Why does a man need a house? It is here that he rests after work, cooks food, shelters from troubles and adverse conditions, heat and frost, wind and rain. But there is another reason for staying in native walls, which can spoil not only the mood, but also the health of its inhabitants - this is the level of radiation.
Radiation is everywhere. However, it is extremely important that the rate of radiation in the room does not exceed the permissible background level of 25 μR / h. This means that the radiation level measured simultaneously at all points in the room should not exceed the specified value. Going beyond this limit can have a destructive effect on the human body. It is possible that the person himself will not suffer, but the consequences will affect the descendants.
So, the acceptable level of radiation in an apartment has a very specific theoretical value. How to find out the actual level of radiation in your home?
Where does radiation come from in the apartment
The level of awareness of the current generation is such that no one will acquire and keep radioactive objects in their home in their home. But the increased radiation background of your housing may be due to a variety of factors. The main source of radiation in homes is radon gas. It has neither color nor smell. Also sources of radiation in houses and apartments are:
- construction materials containing the same harmful radon;
- antique personal effects and interior items;
- some children's toys;
- finishing materials made on the basis of granite.
How to measure radiation at home
Reliable information about the radiation background can be obtained only with the help of special instruments, dosimeters and radiometers.
There are significant differences between these devices. To measure the level of radiation in the apartment, a dosimeter is needed. It is on the display of this device that the information on the effective dose or power of ionizing radiation for a specific period of time in μR / hour will be reflected.
The radiometer allows you to measure the pollution purchased in the store or on the market of products or mushrooms brought from the forest.
There are devices (dosimeters-radiometers) that allow you to perform both of these functions - to measure the dose and its power, as well as to measure the radioactivity of a particular sample. Household dosimeters may vary in different parameters. The measurement range of these devices is usually in the range from 10 to 10 thousand mkR / hour.
How else can you check the radiation in the apartment, without having at your disposal such a device? There are companies that professionally deal with radiation testing of various objects - from building materials, automobiles, to apartments and houses. An apartment radiation check includes:
- measuring the amount of radon gas;
- checking the entire apartment for radiation sources;
- identification of such sources and their elimination.
The walls of buildings protect us from radiation by about 90%. How many times do ionizing radiation of a brick house and walls erected from other materials weaken? Brickwork will reduce its intensity by 10, wooden walls by 2, and concrete by 40–100 times.
In the interior decoration of the house are increasingly used natural materials: granite and marble. Despite the fact that the radiation level of granite is not high, you should not veneer the fireplace with it, because the radiation increases when it is heated. But for the exterior of the house it is very acceptable. For facing of a fireplace use of marble is more pertinent.
Depending on the content of radionuclides, natural building materials are divided into 3 classes. For the construction of residential premises should use more expensive, but safer first class materials.
How to protect yourself from radiation at home
How to protect against radiation in the house? The most significant contribution to the radiation of housing makes radon gas. We remind you that this applies primarily to the first and basement floors. Especially if these premises were closed for some time (vacation, business trip of their inhabitants). Heavy gas, odorless and colorless, penetrates into the room from the bowels of the earth and building materials. Accumulating in the premises, it is able to cause a significant ionizing effect on the body. According to statistics, it is precisely the entry of radon into the respiratory system in second place after smoking among the causes of cancer. Are we unarmed and defenseless in the face of this danger? Of course not. Ways to protect against radiation at home are quite simple.
- Regular and thorough airing of the apartment will help avoid the accumulation of radon.
- Good insulation of the foundation of the building from the ground, timely filling of cracks in the basement will slow down the process of its penetration into the living room.
- Boiling water from artesian wells will remove the gas dissolved in it.
- Choosing materials for construction, check the certificates of quality and region of their production.
- Ensure compliance with the radiation safety standards of all electrical appliances in your use.
- Without regret, part with rare things that are sources of radiation.
The presence of radiation around us is the reality of our time. And it depends on us how and where we learn about the excess of its norms in our own home - looking at the dosimeter scale or in the doctor’s office. Removing this problem is pointless. Moreover, the excess radiation background primarily affects children.