How to measure the level of radiation in an apartment
The word "radiation" is usually associated with Hiroshima, Chernobyl, Fukushima and other catastrophic events in the history of mankind.
But unfortunately, the danger of radioactive exposure lies in wait for people not only at nuclear power facilities, but also within the walls of their own homes. Is the seriousness of this threat so great? Only awareness in this matter can give a correct estimate of the level of radiation in your home.
What and how affects this level, in our power to protect ourselves and our loved ones from its harmful influence?
What is the normal radiation background of an apartment?
Why does a man need a house? It is here that he rests after a day's work, prepares food, takes shelter from troubles and unfavorable conditions-heat and frost, wind and rain. But there is one more reason for staying in native walls, which can spoil not only the mood, but also the health of its inhabitants - this is the level of radiation.
Radiation is present everywhere. However, it is extremely important that the radiation norm in the room does not exceed the allowable background level of 25 microR / h. This means that the radiation level measured simultaneously in all points of the room should not exceed the specified value. Exit beyond this limit can destructively affect the human body. It is possible that the person himself will not suffer, but the consequences will affect the descendants.
So, the permissible level of radiation in the apartment has a very concrete theoretical significance. How do you know the real level of radiation in your home?
Where does radiation in the apartment come from?
The level of awareness of the current generation is such that no one will acquire and keep deliberately radioactive objects in the house. But the increased radiation background of your housing can be due to a variety of factors. The main source of radiation in homes is radon gas. He has neither color nor smell. Also sources of radiation in homes and apartments are:
- building materials containing the same harmful radon;
- old personal things and interior items;
- some children's toys;
- finishing materials made on the basis of granite.
How to measure radiation at home
Reliable information about the radiation background can be obtained only with the help of special dosimeters and radiometers.
Between these devices there are significant differences. To measure the level of radiation in the apartment, you need a dosimeter. It is on the display of this device that information on the effective dose or power of ionizing radiation for a specific time interval in microR / hour will be reflected.
The radiometer allows you to measure the contamination of products purchased in the store or on the market or brought from the forest mushrooms.
There are devices (dosimeters-radiometers) that allow to perform both these functions - to measure the dose and its power, and also to measure the radioactivity of a specific sample. Household dosimeters can differ in different parameters. The measurement range of these devices is usually in the range of 10 to 10 thousand microR / hour.
How else can you check the radiation in the apartment without having such a device at your disposal? There are companies professionally engaged in testing for radiation of various objects - from building materials, cars, to an apartment and a house. Check for radiation of the apartment includes:
- measurement of the amount of radon gas;
- check the entire apartment for radiation sources;
- Identification of such sources and their elimination.
The walls of buildings protect us from radiation by about 90%. How many times do the ionizing radiation of a brick house wall and walls made of other materials weaken? Brick masonry will reduce its intensity by 10, wooden walls in 2, and concrete in 40-100 times.
In the interior decoration of the house, natural materials are increasingly used: granite and marble. Despite the fact that the radiation level of the granite is low, it is still not worthwhile to cover the fireplace with it, since the radiation intensifies when heated. But for exterior decoration of the house, it is very acceptable. For the facing of the fireplace, the use of marble is more appropriate.
Depending on the content of radionuclides, natural building materials are divided into 3 classes. For the construction of residential premises should be used more expensive, but more secure materials of the first class.
How to protect yourself from radiation at home
How to protect yourself from radiation in the house? The most significant contribution to the radiation of housing is made by radon gas. We remind you that this applies primarily to the first and basement floors. Especially if these premises were closed for a while (vacation, business trip of their inhabitants). Heavy gas, odorless and color, penetrates into the room from the earth's interior and building materials. Collecting in rooms, it is capable of causing a significant ionizing effect on the body. According to statistics, it is the fall of radon into the respiratory system in second place after smoking among the causes that cause cancer. Are we unarmed and defenseless in the face of this danger? Of course not. Methods of protection from radiation at home are fairly simple.
- Regular and thorough ventilation of the apartment will help to avoid accumulation of radon.
- Good insulation of the foundation of the building from the ground, timely pouring of cracks in the basement will slow the process of its penetration into living rooms.
- Boiling water from artesian wells will remove the dissolved gas in it.
- When choosing materials for construction, check the quality certificates and the region of their extraction.
- Take care of observing the radiation safety standards of all electrical appliances that are in your use.
- Without regret, part with the rare things that are sources of radiation.
The presence of radiation around us is the reality of our time. And it depends on us how and where we learn about the excess of its norms in our own home - by looking at the dosimeter scale or in the doctor's office. It is senseless to dismiss this problem. Moreover, the excess of the radiation background primarily affects children.