Codeine - what is it?
Any medicine, no matter how remarkable it was or possessed the ideal properties against the disease, conceals a lot of dangers in itself. Each of them can be represented in the form of a time bomb - you never know what kind of reaction the drug will cause in the human body. And if before the manufacturers of side effects were silent, now they are being talked about in public.
Some of the medicines are referred to as strong on the nervous system, but they are widely and everywhere used. How does codeine affect the body and what is the danger of its regular use?
What is Codeine
Codeine (methylmorphine) refers to the group of chemicals that doctors do not like and try to avoid using them in every way. These are drugs that act on the central nervous system. Narcotic analgesics.
But not all representatives of this group are especially dangerous, some of them are successfully used not only as an anesthetic. Codeine belongs to the latter. Due to the less pronounced influence on the nervous system, it is used in many combined preparations.
Codeine, what is this substance and how did it attract doctors' attention? Despite belonging to the group with dangerous consequences, it is widely used today. But not as a remover and significantly reducing pain, but as another means.
Codeine, like morphine, is an alkaloid of opium, but it is also obtained synthetically. By its action on the nervous system, it is weaker than morphine. This property attracted drug developers.
What codeine has an effect on the body?
- A very pronounced property of this substance is to suppress the cough reflex. This ability and formed the basis for the development of drugs involving this alkaloid.
- Affects the nervous system. Pain removes not so pronounced, but can lead to insomnia.
- It inhibits the work of the gastrointestinal tract, although in very rare cases the effect on the digestive system is too strong.
Where is the codeine, in what medicines can it be found?
- For many generations, a tool called "Bechterew's Potion" is familiar. The main indications for the prescription of this medication are sedative, from headaches and in some cases with neuralgia of intercostal nerves.
- Tablets "Terpinkod" and "Codterpin" contain 0.008 grams of codeine. They are also filled with sodium bicarbonate and terpinhydrate. The latter substance is added for better sputum excretion, this effect is not available to codeine, because it acts on the brain. This antitussive drug. Another drug with the same effect "Tablets from cough."
- "Solpadein", "Nurofen Plus", "Sedalgin" and "Sedalgin Neo", "Pentalgin" - all include a small amount of codeine.
But given that codeine is a drug, despite the weaker effect, all the drugs presented should be given only on prescription.
Indications for use of codeine-containing drugs
Codeine itself is not used, but such an active ingredient is a part of multicomponent drugs with a lot of effects. In what cases are the codeine preparations used?
Assign with prolonged strong cough. Codeine reduces the excitability of the cough center. As a result of its use, cough becomes less frequent and less pronounced until complete disappearance. Assign a medicine for bronchitis, bronchopneumonia and emphysema of the lungs.
- They use such drugs for diseases of the nervous system: neuralgia, muscle and headaches. The effect develops 30-40 minutes after taking.
- In some cases, preparations containing codeine can be used as a sedative drug.
- Are appointed for the regulation of diseases of the digestive system.
- Dizziness, a feeling of thirst, can be a red face. When the codeine is poisoned, the victim's consciousness remains.
- Influence on the nervous system manifests itself in the form of cramps, dilated pupils, periodically imaginary feeling of well-being, drowsiness, depression, insomnia, nervousness, confusion, twitching of muscles.
- Spastic pains in the abdomen, in rare cases, intestinal obstruction, constipation, nausea, vomiting.
- Allergic reaction in the form of hives, itching, facial edema.
- The consequences of taking codeine are manifested as a violation of the rhythm of the heart, reducing blood pressure, reducing urination, inhibiting the respiratory center.
- If one takes too much of a dose (0.1 grams or more) along with all the above effects, complications will develop: brain and lung edema, pneumonia, death from central paralysis of the respiration.
- In a hospital, intravenous naloxone is shown prior to the elimination of a breathing disorder.
- If the rhythm of the heart is broken in the form of a rare heartbeat (bradycardia) - enter atropine.
- Lack of consciousness and respiratory failure is an indication for artificial ventilation of the lungs (IVL).
- Codeine dependence must be treated in specialized centers with the participation of psychiatrists.
The substance is given in tablets, powders and solutions to adults. The daily dose should not exceed 0.02 grams. Otherwise, methylmorphine will cause the following side effects.
Codeine is forbidden for children up to two years due to their belonging to opioids. In combined preparations for children, a weak analogue is used - codeine phosphate. In rare and exceptional cases, it is prescribed to children older than 6 months.
If the codeine is used constantly, addiction develops to it as if using any narcotic drugs. The withdrawal syndrome is accompanied by pain throughout the body, sleep disturbance, dry mouth, irritability, aggression.
Treatment of Codeine Poisoning
How to treat overdose with codeine? Complexity in the diagnosis is that this substance is often included in complex medicines with a combined composition. Therefore, at the pre-hospital stage, the victim can be washed with a stomach, give a salt sodium laxative and a sorbent, which is most often activated charcoal, - not less than 8 tablets.
Small doses of the drug, a less pronounced effect on the nervous system and such a positive effect as a decrease in cough - in some cases, it turns out, are just minor positive moments. Harm codeine lies in the fact that many, buying syrups for the normalization of the nervous system or the removal of headaches, with each dose increase the dose. At the same time no one knows about other codeine functions. Adapting to a substance or poisoning it can happen by ignorance. Therefore, it is very important to take it only with the appointment of a doctor and under the supervision of experienced health workers.