Rat poison is a lethal dose for a person, the symptoms and consequences of poisoning
Rats and mice are eternal companions of man. To combat them, it is best to use biological methods: catching or scaring, keeping cats and other rat-cat animals in the house. However, with a large population, the use of more radical means, namely, rat poisons, is required. Their use must be carried out in compliance with safety regulations, despite the fact that human poisoning with rat venom does not happen so often.
A person who is not involved in the production of drugs and rodents, is much more likely to become a victim of food poisoning in the nearest eatery. And yet there are cases of ingestion into the body of poisons for the destruction of rodents. How does this happen, what is the lethal dose and what to do in such situations? Let's understand.
When it is possible to poison a person with rat poison
In Russia, lethal cases of poisoning with baits against rodents have not been recorded in recent decades. According to reports in the press, group poisonings of children occurred in 2007 and 2011. In all cases, the children were provided with timely medical assistance, and the small patients completely recovered. So, in 2007, 15 kids, aged 3-4 years, were poisoned in Vladimir. Left unattended, they ate peas with rat poison. In 2011, group poisoning of schoolchildren aged 6-11 was recorded in the Tyumen region. The children also ate the pickled sunflower seeds. There are reports that the child in the eyes of his parents bitten off or swallowed tablets from rodents.
Is it possible to die from rat poison to a person? In China in 2002-2011, cases of willful poisoning with rat poison, banned for sale, have been recorded repeatedly. Attackers peppered him with food. There are also cases of poisoning when eating shish kebab (presumably from the meat of dead rats and foxes). In some cases, about 10% of the deaths of people affected by death occurred.
The degree of damage to the body and the possibility of death in the first place depends on what substance is contained in the bait.
Types of rat poison and its effect on the human body
Rat poison is called "rodenticide" - it is a means for the destruction of rodents. It belongs to the group of pesticides and is widely used in agriculture and in everyday life. There are several varieties of rodenticides that differ in the action of rat venom in animals, including humans.
- The rat (naphthylthiourea) and zinc phosphide are currently limited in use because of their high toxicity. They refer to the agents of acute action and cause 100% death of rodents within a few hours after eating the bait. They are applied under strict control in those areas where other poisons no longer function.
- Obsolete poisons, prohibited for use: arsenic and lead compounds, thallium sulfate, yellow or white phosphorus, strychnine.
- Almost all remedies against rats and mice that are available for free sale contain zookoumarins. These are substances that interfere with blood clotting. As a result of eating such poisons, rodents die from internal bleeding. Anticoagulants of the first generation: Warfarin (Zoocumarin), Ratindan, Isoindan, Ethylphenacin and others. They do not accumulate in the body, they act slowly and are excreted by the kidneys within 3-4 days. Some populations of rodents eventually develop immunity to anticoagulants of this group. Therefore, more potent drugs were invented. Anticoagulants of the second generation are more toxic, act faster and accumulate in the body, that is, they have a cumulative (accumulative) effect. This group includes: Brodifacum, Bromadiolon, Flocumafen, Difenacum and others.
When ingested with rat poison, the lethal dose for a person will depend on the active ingredient and the state of health, primarily the liver. It is the liver that synthesizes the factors necessary for normal clotting of blood. And anticoagulant poisons destroy these substances. For Warfarin, the lethal dose (LD50) is 60 mg / kg of body weight, and for Bromadiolone - 300 mg / kg.
It is difficult to accept a large number of rat poison at random. To obtain a lethal dose requires repeated exposure to anticoagulants in the body. Rats, in order to die, must eat the bait for a week. In addition, as a rule, from 0.1 to 2% of the active substance is contained in the finished form of rat poison. To prepare the bait, the preparation is mixed with grain, minced meat or other feed that is attractive to rodents. The rat poison, which contains zookoumarins, in the ready-to-use mixture contains about 2-3% of the drug, which, on average, is 0.02%, calculated on the basis of pure poison. Thus, if for a lethal outcome an adult needs to eat 3-4 grams of pure venom, then in recalculation on a sales form it will be about 150 grams. In soft briquettes - tablets from rats, so popular today, contains 0.005% of the poison. Even a child needs to swallow a large enough piece to get a serious poisoning.
It should be noted that some poisons from rats can penetrate the skin. Those who work on cooking baits, you should take precautions.
Symptoms of poisoning with rat poison in humans
When a person is poisoned with rat poison, the symptoms develop not immediately, but 3-4 days after the ingestion of the poison into the body. The disease is characterized by a chronic course. In rare cases, due to taking a large dose of a potent drug, it may be that the signs of a clotting disorder appear 12-24 hours later.
The victims are noted:
- nausea, loss of appetite;
- the appearance of bleeding gums, hemorrhages on the mucous membranes;
- less often the symptoms of poisoning with rat poison in humans are manifested by diarrhea, an admixture of blood in the fecal masses, bleeding from the nose, abdominal pain, the appearance of bloody spots on the body.
First aid for human poisoning with rat poison
In case of accidental ingestion of a poison into the stomach, it is necessary:
- induce vomiting;
- drink 3 liters of liquid;
- take activated charcoal;
- drink a salt laxative.
If you get a rat poison on the skin of a person - rinse with warm water and soap; on the mucous membranes of the eyes and mouth - rinse abundantly with running water.
Depending on what dose the victim received, and how rat poison affects a person, hospitalization may be necessary. Treatment in the hospital is based on the introduction within 15-30 days of the antidote - vitamin K1 (Phytomenadione) and maintenance therapy: hepatoprotectors, forced diuresis. In severe cases, blood transfusion may be required to quickly replenish the clotting factor. Recovery is monitored by a prothrombin index-a laboratory blood coagulation evaluation.
Consequences of human poisoning with rat poison
In the case of human poisoning with rat poison, the consequences may be remote. Therefore, timely application for medical assistance is mandatory. The doctor will conduct the necessary laboratory tests and prescribe the treatment. Even with a mild degree of damage, a prolonged intake of vitamin K is required. Otherwise, the liver will find it difficult to restore normal blood clotting, different manifestations of hemophilia syndrome are possible:
- bleeding gums;
- heavy bleeding during wound injuries;
- internal hemorrhage.
Let's summarize how to act in case of poisoning a person with rat poison. If you accidentally get a rat poison into the stomach, you must induce vomiting, drink plenty of fluids and take activated charcoal. If the poisoning is chronic, induce vomiting and wash the stomach does not make sense.
In all cases of poisoning, you should consult a doctor for medication.