Buttercup poisoning caustic and poisonous
Buttercups are a vast family of perennial or annual herbaceous plants. In total, the genus Lyutikovy (lat. Ranunculus) has about 600 species growing in the temperate climate of the Northern Hemisphere; in Russia, there are just over 100 species. Some types of buttercups are bred for decorative purposes. Not all types of buttercups are safe for humans and animals. The name of the flower itself comes from the word "fierce." The answer to the question: “Buttercup is poisonous or not?” - depends on what kind of it is before you. The most common are the types of buttercups that have a toxic effect: caustic, poisonous, burning (pyschynets), large, field. But these types of buttercup: creeping, chistyak or golden - are quite harmless.
Let us consider in detail the description of caustic buttercup and poisonous buttercup as the most characteristic representatives of their family - how they act on a person, where they have been used, symptoms of poisoning with them, and first aid.
All buttercups are small herbaceous plants with small yellow, rarely white five-petal flowers.
Buttercup caustic (night blindness, meadow dawn, goatfish, pearl). This type of buttercup is more common. A perennial plant with a straight, branched stem, whose height is from 30 to 100 cm. The lower leaves are notched toothed, five-lobed, with long petioles. Upper leaves are tripartite almost sessile on stalk. Flowers on long legs, up to 2 cm in diameter, golden yellow, consist of five petals.
The flowering period is at the end of spring and summer. Fruits - round achenes brownish, slightly compressed laterally. The rhizome of the plant is short, with numerous roots. Buttercup is bred by acrid seeds, from which the rosette of leaves grows in the first year. Later in the winter, the aboveground part of the plant dies off, and in spring a new shoot sprouts from the rhizome.
The plant is found in the European part of our country and in Siberia. Where does a buttercup grow? It is a weed growing in meadows and pastures. It can be found in the meadows in the forests.
Description of a buttercup
People call it differently: scab, feverish grass, aishak, boil, bishak, criminal buttercup. This type of buttercup grows in the European part of Russia, in the Far East, in Siberia, the republics of Central Asia. Like most other species of this family, the Latin name of which - frog - says about the frequent proximity to frogs, poisonous buttercup prefers moist fertile soil.
You can meet him in the damp, wetlands, along the banks of reservoirs and ditches. In contrast to caustic buttercup, poisonous buttercup is an annual or biennial plant with a height of 20 to 45 cm, the stem is hollow branched. The leaves are fleshy, shiny, three-five-fold. The flowers are small (7–10 mm in diameter), light yellow, when ripe, form a fruit - a cylindrical head. The season when the buttercup blooms is poisonous, comes at the end of spring and summer.
Where buttercups are used
Buttercup grass raw materials are not officially harvested in Russia. Nevertheless, caustic buttercup, although it is a poisonous plant, is used in folk medicine externally as a cauterizing and bactericidal agent for such skin diseases as purulent wounds, scabs, warts, fungal diseases. Fresh grass lotions and juice help with various inflammatory diseases - rheumatism, radiculitis, arthritis, gout and osteochondrosis.
Buttercup poisonous is used as a disinfectant for skin diseases. Divorced juice of a fresh plant is able to get rid of scabies, fungal and furunculosis lesions.
When drying, poisonous protoanemonin is destroyed and other chemical compounds contained in the grass of buttercup are prominently in the foreground: cardiac glycosides, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, vitamin C, coumarins. Dried plants are used to make infusions and decoctions. With their help, they treat various diseases:
- women's diseases;
- swelling and dropsy;
- bronchial asthma;
- weakness and dizziness.
The poisonous properties of all buttercups are given by a substance from the lactone group, called protoanemonin. It is found in all parts of the plant. Species variations in the content of this toxin are poorly studied. Of practical importance are the poisoning of the most common types of buttercups, as well as caustic buttercup when used incorrectly as a means of traditional medicine.
Butterculosis poisoning of people is possible only if they violate the ban on the use of folk remedies based on this drug inside. Animals get buttercup poisoning more often, but as a rule, there are no deaths. The poisoning toxin is a volatile, oily liquid with a sharp, unpleasant taste and odor. When the grass dries, it decomposes and becomes harmless. Therefore, the poisoning of livestock is possible only in some cases - feeding hungry animals, harvesting green grass in swampy places, if buttercups are mixed with other herbs and difficult to separate when eaten. Animals usually have a chronic form of intoxication.
Protoanemonin toxin is highly irritating. When ingested, it causes inflammation of the mucous membranes of the digestive tract. Inhalation of protoanemonin vapors leads to tearing, cutting in the eyes, spasms in the throat, coughing and discharge from the nose.
Signs of poisoning
Symptoms of poisoning poisoning poisoning and other species of this plant will be the same, since they all contain the same active ingredient. When a plant juice comes in contact with the skin, it is noted:
- blistering inflammation (urticaria);
- sometimes boils.
When the plant juice gets on the mucous membranes of the eyes and nose, as well as inhalation of toxin vapors (for example, in a freshly picked bouquet of wild flowers), they develop:
- spasms of the larynx;
- runny nose
Severe damage to the mucous membranes of the eyes causes pain and can lead to temporary loss of vision (hence the popular name for buttercup - night blindness).
If toxin enters the digestive tract there will be such symptoms:
- stomach pains;
- pulse change.
When a significant dose of toxin enters the human body, signs of damage to the central nervous system appear:
- muscle tremor;
- disturbance of consciousness.
More detailed study of buttercups poisoning in animals. Most often, cows and small cattle suffer from the effects of eating poisonous grass, less often horses and rabbits. Signs of cattle poisoning with buttercups:
- rejection of feed;
- lack of gum;
- stomach ache;
- strong anxiety.
Then diarrhea develops, the amount of urine excreted increases, blood appears in it, painful urination. Tremor, convulsions, rotational movements of the eyeballs appear. The animal falls, develops a strong weakness. Death occurs from a sharp decline in cardiac activity. Here it should be noted that cases of fatal poisoning of animals with buttercups are described only in foreign literature.
First aid for poisoning
As soon as the first signs of poisoning with caustic or poisonous poisoning appear, first aid should be given to the victim. It is necessary to remove the toxic substance from the body as soon as possible. In case of contact with skin or mucous membranes, the affected area should be washed with plenty of water and lubricated with anti-burn agent, for example, “Panthenol”, “Oxazol”.
When ingested toxins, it is necessary to wash the stomach with a weak-pink solution of potassium permanganate or 2% edible soda solution, induce vomiting and seek medical help. If there are severe pains in the mouth and in the stomach, you can keep small pieces of ice in your mouth and gradually swallow them.
In case of poisoning with poisonous plants with buttercups, treatment consists of the following measures:
- washing the stomach with a water suspension of activated carbon;
- the appointment of enveloping means - mucous decoctions, egg white, milk;
- cottage inside adsorbents, for example, "Smekta".
Depending on the condition of the victim, it may be necessary to administer painkillers, drug recovery of heart rhythm, intravenous infusions of antitoxic agents (glucose, sodium hyposulphite). In case of kidney damage, appropriate treatment is carried out.
To prevent burns to the skin and mucous membranes, one should be wary of picking flowers and other herbal raw materials in case of skin irritation, do not rub eyes with hands.
To avoid poisoning when the toxin is ingested, it is necessary to strictly follow the dosages of folk recipes, to prevent the use of fresh buttercup grass inside, when preparing raw materials for decoctions and infusions to dry the grass well.
For the prevention of poisoning in livestock, avoid harvesting the green mass in biotopes where buttercups grow. If necessary, hay is made from such grass or treated areas littered with buttercups and pesticides.
In conclusion, it can be said that buttercups are a vast family of annual and perennial plants, not all of which are poisonous. A distinctive feature of all buttercups - pinhole leaves, yellow or white small flowers, proximity to ponds or other water sources. You can get poisoned with a buttercup when the sap of the plant gets into the eyes or mucous membranes of the nose and mouth. This causes severe irritation, tearing, stinging and even temporary loss of vision.
With the wrong use of folk recipes based on buttercups, you can get poisoning, accompanied by abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea. For treatment, it is necessary to consult a doctor, as serious burns, inflammation of the stomach and intestines, damage to the heart and kidneys are possible.