Muscarine - an alkaloid made from mushrooms
Amanita, known to each of us, contains a dangerous toxic substance - muscarin. Its name comes from the name of this mushroom in Latin.
This alkaloid has a complex effect on the central nervous system. In severe cases of poisoning, symptoms of pulmonary edema and death occur. A treatment of poisoning requires the adoption of urgent resuscitative measures.
What is muscarin
Muscarine is an alkaloid, extremely dangerous to health. It was discovered in the XIX century in the red fly agaric. Mushroom is often found in the forests of the European continent and Siberia. It is noteworthy that fresh fly agaric is poisonous to flies, but in dried form it is absolutely harmless for them.
Until now, scientists in full do not know what is muscarine, since many people use it for food or medicinal purposes. Thus, the indigenous peoples of Kamchatka make a drink from the fly agaric with intoxicating properties. In mushroom, in addition, found other alkaloids with toxic properties.
Muscarine - an alkaloid is a liquid without color, very dense and gradually turning into crystals when dried in the presence of sulfuric acid. In air, the crystals again become a liquid. It dissolves well in water and ethyl alcohol. Muscarin is destroyed by heating, contact with alkali, lead oxide.
Where is muscarin
Fans of mushrooms need to know what mushrooms are muscarin, so they do not accidentally get into the basket.
In addition to fly agaric, a dangerous substance is found in the goatskin whitish, fiber, and in mushrooms of the genus Spiderweb. Among them - geybeloma, fire.
The presence of muscarin in swine is also proved. This conditionally edible mushroom is very insidious. Thus, overgrown specimens are able to accumulate muscarine. It is proved that under favorable conditions for growth, muscarine can accumulate in a thin pig in a rather large amount. So the best way to get rid of swine is to refuse. It is not necessary to collect and swine thick, because it accumulates a lot of poisonous substances, but still has a very mediocre taste.
How does muscarin
The mechanism of action of muscarin is that it paralyzes the airways and causes a reduction in the musculature of the stomach and intestines. Perceptions of this poison are the so-called muscarinic receptors in the nervous system. These receptors transmit the nerve signals. Receptors bind the alkaloid muscarin, but are blocked by atropine. Muscarinic receptors are responsible for contraction of smooth muscles, vasodilation, they lower the heart rate, increase the secretion of glands. Large doses of muscarin cause diastolic heart failure - that is, it stops in a relaxed state.
Activation of muscarinic receptors leads to a strong contraction of smooth muscles. Often, the contraction of the intestine becomes noticeable through the abdominal wall. With a large consumption of muscarin, disorderly spasms of the intestine arise. Vomiting very quickly joins diarrhea. Characteristically also very strong reduction of the stomach. The alkaloid causes a decrease in the uterus, spleen, and bladder.
Under the influence of muscarin the pupil decreases, and a spasm of accommodation arises. Activates the selection of bile, pancreatic juice, saliva, sweat, tears.
Symptoms of Muscarinic Poisoning
Poisoning with muscarin has these symptoms:
- copious sweat;
- severe redness of the face;
- nausea and vomiting;
- stomach ache;
- heart rhythm disorders;
- lowering blood pressure right up to the collapoid state (life-threatening condition with deterioration of blood supply to all organs);
reduction of bronchi and significant secretion of bronchial glands lead to the fact that there is difficulty in breathing, blueing of the skin, convulsions.
Such symptoms appear only 15-30 minutes after taking muscarin inside. In pregnant women, the alkaloid leads to lactation, that is, to the separation of milk. Attention is drawn to the visual impairment caused by the spasm of accommodation - false nearsightedness. At the same time, the victim sees all the objects indistinctly, his field of vision is blurred.
Within a day, the state of poisoned, improves. However, in some cases, poisoning progresses and death occurs. The cause of death is the result of respiratory disorders. Significantly improves the prognosis for mild muscarinic poisoning.
First aid for the victim
Acute poisoning with muscarin requires immediate treatment. Only half a gram of muscarin can cause death. Therefore, the first thing to do when poisoning with mushrooms containing muscarin is to call an ambulance team.
Before the ambulance arrives, urgent measures should be taken to detoxify the body. This is achieved by washing the stomach with a large amount of water. It is necessary to give the patient to drink enough water, and then artificially induce vomiting. You can add a little bit of potassium permanganate to the water - so that it is light pink. Stop washing is possible only when the water that leaves the stomach becomes completely transparent.
After the stomach is washed, it is necessary to give the affected person activated charcoal - one tablet is calculated per 10 kilograms of the person's weight. Or any other sorbent will do. It is also necessary to wash the intestines with enemas.
Before the arrival of a team of doctors, one should not try to give injections, anesthetics, antispasmodics, etc. Thus, the picture of the disease will be distorted and the treatment may be ineffective.
Treatment of muscarinic poisoning
The antidote of muscarin is atropine. Under the influence of atropine, the muscarin receptors are blocked. In turn, muscarine is an antidote (or antagonist) of atropine, so these alkaloids are so-called reciprocal antagonists.
Antidotes for this mushroom poison can also be:
aconitine-alkaloid, contained in the aconite;
- chloral hydrate.
The antidote effect of atropine is due to paralysis of parasympathetic nerves.
Atropine stops and strengthened the peristalsis of the stomach, the activity of the salivary glands. In order to activate the antidote effect, only 0.1 grams of atropine is needed.
In addition to the application of the antidote treatment consists of the following procedures.
- To reduce the amount of muscarin in the blood use infusion therapy - the introduction of intravenous solutions of glucose, electrolytes, blood plasma substitutes.
- To remove muscarine from the intestine, prescribe castor oil, enemas, heaters.
- With the help of abundant drink diuresis.
- For stimulation of cardiac activity, it is used camphor, caffeine.
- The supply of oxygen prevents the development of respiratory failure.
The prognosis for poisoning with mushrooms containing muscarine is much more favorable than when using pale toadstool. However, when the patient is in a long unconscious state and the cardiac activity falls, the prognosis worsens. In favorable cases, recovery occurs on the second or on the third day. In the worst cases of poisoning and with a progressive decline in cardiac activity, death may occur in a few hours or on the second day with the phenomena of respiratory failure.
So, muscarin poisoning is a rather difficult condition, which, however, is effectively treated in modern conditions. Timely appeal for medical help is the key to successful treatment.