Muscarin - an alkaloid of mushrooms
Amanitas, known to each of us, contain a dangerous toxic substance - muscarin. Its name comes from the name of this mushroom in Latin.
This alkaloid has a complex effect on the central nervous system. In severe cases of poisoning, symptoms of pulmonary edema and death occur. And treatment of poisoning requires urgent resuscitation.
What is muscarin
Muscarin is an alkaloid, extremely dangerous to health. It was opened in the XIX century in the red mushroom. The fungus is often found in the forests of the European continent and Siberia. It is noteworthy that the fresh fly agaric is poisonous to the flies, but in the dried form, it is absolutely harmless to them.
Until now, scientists are not fully aware of what muscarine is, since many people use it for food or for medicinal purposes. Thus, the indigenous peoples of Kamchatka make an amanita drink with intoxicating properties. In addition to the mushroom, other alkaloids with toxic properties were found.
Muscarin - alkaloid is a liquid without color, very thick and gradually turning into crystals when dried in the presence of sulfuric acid. In the air, the crystals again become liquid. It is well dissolved in water and ethyl alcohol. Muscarin is destroyed by heating, contact with alkalis, lead oxide.
Where is muscarin
Fans of mushrooms need to know in which mushrooms muscarine is located so that they do not accidentally fall into a basket.
In addition to the mushroom, a hazardous substance is found in the whitish goatfish, fibrin box, as well as in spiderweed mushrooms. Among them - gebelom, fire gun.
The presence of muscarin in swine has also been proven. This conditionally edible mushroom is very treacherous. So, overgrown specimens are able to accumulate muscarin. It has been proven that under conditions favorable to growth, muscarin can accumulate in the pig sapling in a sufficiently large amount. So the use of svushki best to give up. It is not necessary to collect and thick pig, as it accumulates a lot of poisonous substances, but still has a very mediocre taste.
How does muscarin
The mechanism of action of muscarin is that it paralyzes the respiratory tract and causes contraction of the muscles of the stomach and intestines. The so-called muscarinic receptors located in the nervous system are responsible for the perception of this poison. These receptors transmit nerve signals. The receptors bind the alkaloid muscarine, and are blocked by atropine. Muscarinic receptors are responsible for the reduction of smooth muscles, the expansion of blood vessels, they lower the heart rate, increase the secretion of glands. Large doses of muscarin cause diastolic cardiac arrest - that is, it stops in a relaxed state.
Activating the muscarine receptors leads to a strong contraction of smooth muscle. Often the contraction of the intestine becomes noticeable through the abdominal wall. With a large use of muscarine, indiscriminate bowel cramps occur. Vomiting joins diarrhea very quickly. A very strong contraction of the stomach is also characteristic. Alkaloid causes contraction of the uterus, spleen, bladder.
Under the influence of muscarin, the pupil is reduced, and a spasm of accommodation occurs. Activation of bile, pancreatic juice, saliva, sweat, tears is activated.
Symptoms of muscarine poisoning
Muscarine poisoning has the following symptoms:
- copious sweat;
- severe redness of the face;
- nausea and vomiting;
- stomach ache;
- heart rhythm disorders;
- lowering blood pressure down to a collaptoid state (a life-threatening condition with a deterioration in the blood supply to all organs);
contraction of the bronchi and significant secretion of the bronchial glands lead to the fact that there is difficulty in breathing, blue skin, cramps.
Such symptoms appear as early as 15-30 minutes after ingestion of muscarin. In pregnant women, alkaloid leads to lactation, that is, to the separation of milk. The attention disorder caused by a spasm of accommodation - false myopia attracts attention. In this case, the victim sees all objects indistinctly, his field of vision is blurred.
During the day, the state of poisoning, is improving. However, in some cases, the poisoning progresses and death occurs. Cause of death - as a result of respiratory disorders. Significantly improved prognosis for mild muscarine poisoning.
First aid to the victim
Acute muscarinic poisoning requires immediate treatment. Only half a gram of muscarin can cause death. Therefore, the first thing to do in case of poisoning with mushrooms containing muscarine is to call an ambulance brigade.
Prior to the arrival of the ambulance, it is necessary to organize urgent measures to detoxify the body. This is achieved by washing the stomach with plenty of water. It is necessary to give the patient enough water to drink, and then artificially induce vomiting. You can add a little potassium permanganate to the water - so that it is light pink. You can stop washing only when the water that comes out of the stomach becomes completely clear.
After the stomach is washed, it is necessary to give the affected activated carbon - one tablet is calculated per 10 kilograms of human weight. Or any other sorbent will do. It is also necessary to wash the intestines with enemas.
Do not try to give the patient injections, painkillers, antispasmodics, etc., until the medical team arrives.
Treatment with muscarine poisoning
The muskarine antidote is atropine. Under the influence of atropine, muscarin receptors are blocked. In turn, muscarin is an antidote (or antagonist) of atropine, so these alkaloids are so-called reciprocal antagonists.
Antidotes for this mushroom poison can also be:
aconitine alkaloid contained in aconite;
- chloral hydrate.
The antidote effect of atropine is due to paralysis of the parasympathetic nerves.
Atropine stops and increased peristalsis of the stomach, the activity of the salivary glands. In order to activate the antidote effect, you need only 0.1 grams of atropine.
In addition to the use of antidote treatment consists of the following procedures.
- To reduce the amount of muscarin in the blood, infusion therapy is used - the introduction of intravenous glucose solutions, electrolytes, blood plasma substitutes.
- To remove muscarin from the intestines, prescribe castor oil, enemas, heating pads.
- With the help of heavy drinking they cause diuresis.
- Camphor, caffeine is used to stimulate cardiac activity.
- The supply of oxygen prevents the development of respiratory failure.
The prognosis for poisoning with mushrooms containing muscarin is much more favorable than when eating a toadstool. However, when the patient is found in a long unconscious state and the heart rate falls, the prognosis worsens. In favorable cases, recovery occurs on the second or third day. In the worst cases of poisoning and with a progressive fall in cardiac activity, death can occur in a few hours or on the second day with symptoms of respiratory failure.
So, muscarinic poisoning is a rather serious condition, which, however, is effectively treated in modern conditions. Timely treatment for medical help is the key to successful treatment.