Acetone (dimethyl ketone) is a substance belonging to the group of ketones. It is a precursor of narcotic substances, the turnover of which is in a concentration of over 60%, is under control. Since acetone is added to many household liquids, poisoning with it is a fairly frequent form of intoxication.
Consider the main signs of acetone poisoning in adults and children, as well as ways to treat this condition.
Acetone is a colorless liquid with a sharp, characteristic odor. This substance can be poisoned if taken inside (ie, orally) or by inhaling its vapors. If inhaled, it has an irritating and mild narcotic effect. A lethal dose of acetone for internal use is from 50 to 200 milliliters. The substance is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream, thus causing poisoning.
After a substance enters the bloodstream, it is rather slowly excreted from the body. In high doses, dimethyl ketone causes drooling, nausea and skin irritation. Harm is compounded by the fact that the substance contributes to the development of delusional states, causes confusion. Separate studies indicate that this substance causes the destruction of male sperm. Inhalation of vapors causes irritation of the mucous membranes of the respiratory system.
The inhalation of acetone vapor is often used by addicts to achieve an euphoric effect. At the same time, there is a pronounced effect on the central nervous system, its depression.
Symptoms of acetone poisoning
Signs of poisoning with acetone are similar to those observed with alcohol intoxication. Loss of consciousness in case of poisoning with dimethylketone is not as long as with alcohol intoxication.
When a substance enters the body, the following symptoms are observed:
- lowering blood pressure;
- inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth, pharynx, and edema of these organs;
- the presence of a strong smell of acetone in the exhaled air;
- nausea and vomiting;
- the presence of a sweet taste in the mouth;
- abdominal pain;
- headache, hallucinations;
- irritation of the oral mucosa;
- severe redness of the eyes;
- when ingested large amounts of dimethylketone, incoherent speech, stupor, coma is observed.
It must be said that oral poisoning with acetone is an extremely rare phenomenon. The fact is that a person cannot drink a large amount of poisonous liquid due to its sharp unpleasant smell. However, cases of the use of this fluid occur due to ingestion of alcoholic substitutes, which together with denatured alcohol contains some amount of acetone.
In addition, with prolonged poisoning, you can notice the yellowness of the sclera, as well as an increase in the size of the liver. Observed and deviations in the activity of the kidneys, difficulty urinating. Prolonged poisoning with dimethylketone vapors causes inflammation of the lungs and bronchi.
Symptoms of acetone vapor
According to doctors, it is possible to poison seriously the fumes of this poison only in exceptional cases, because the state of intoxication will force or stop working with the poisonous substance, or ventilate the room. Severe intoxication with acetone vapor is possible if a person consciously inhales it in order to cause a narcotic effect.
Symptoms of poisoning in pairs of acetone have such characteristic features:
- growing weakness in the whole body;
- acute conjunctivitis;
- inflammation of the nasal mucosa;
- disturbances of consciousness of varying severity.
A person who has been poisoned by this toxic substance must be given professional medical assistance. Successful treatment saves the sick life.
First aid for this type of poisoning should be carried out harmoniously, without panic and according to clear rules.
- If the poisoning occurred indoors, it is necessary to urgently bring the patient to fresh air.
- If acetone is ingested, immediately flush the stomach with saline and induce vomiting.
- The patient must be given activated carbon.
- In an unconscious state, the patient is resurfaced with the aid of a cotton wool dipped in liquid ammonia.
- Poisoned need to drink warm tea, put to bed.
One of the most effective ways to treat acetone vapors is oxygen inhalation. Breathing oxygen purifies the blood from poison. However, most doctors note a significant relief of the patient’s condition only a few days after the start of oxygen inhalation.
Gastric lavage is used to remove poison from the digestive tract. This is done in the hospital: the doctor inserts a special tube through the throat into the stomach, where water is pumped, which is then pumped out. Such a procedure is done until the stomach is completely free of toxic substances.
Infusion therapy is common: the patient is given intravenous alkalizing solutions, which help to quickly remove dimethyl ketone from the blood.
With timely treatment started, the chances for the patient to recover are very high.
Acetone poisoning in children
Parents should, from the earliest years, explain to their child that acetone is a toxic substance that can cause severe poisoning if misused.
In children, acetone is absorbed much faster into the blood and spreads throughout the body. The rapid absorption of a poisonous substance is due to the fact that the child has a more frequent heartbeat due to which the organs are more intensively supplied with blood. Metabolism in children is also much more intense. So how fast medical care will be provided to young patients will depend on their health and sometimes life.
Acetone poisoning in children has more pronounced symptoms. A lethal dose per kilogram of child's weight is 2-3 milliliters. The most characteristic symptoms of dimethylketone poisoning in children:
- unsteadiness of gait and severe dizziness;
- severe weakness;
- a strong smell of acetone in the exhaled air;
- ulceration of the oral mucosa;
- severe drowsiness, coma.
The rapid increase in sleepiness indicates a sharp drop in cardiac activity in children, and therefore requires urgent medical measures.
Parents should remember a clear algorithm of actions for such poisoning.
- Call an ambulance.
- Wash the stomach with plenty of water. However, this should be done only if the child is conscious.
- Give your child any enterosorbent - activated carbon, "Smekta", etc.
- In case of poisoning with vapors of acetone it is very important to ensure the flow of fresh air.
- If the poison gets on the skin, it should be washed with plenty of water.
Effects of acetone poisoning
If medical aid is not provided to the patient, the following effects of acetone poisoning are observed:
sharp blanching of the face;
- cooling and blue limbs;
- heavy and noisy breathing;
- renal failure;
- metabolic acidosis - a disease in which the blood has an acidic reaction, it is accompanied by increased respiration, increasing weakness, drowsiness, confusion.
Acetone is a toxic substance that has an intoxicating effect on the human body. It adversely affects the vital activity of the whole organism, and delayed treatment leads to the development of a comatose state. The task of therapeutic measures is the rapid elimination of poison from the body and the restoration of the functions of all organs.