Poisoning of belladonna
Belladonna is a perennial plant with toxic properties. It grows along forest edges, roads, river banks in many regions of the globe. Has many synonyms: ordinary belladonna, sleepy stupor, drought, wild berry, belladonna, mad cherry.
In translation from the Italian language belladonna means "beautiful woman". After all, in the old days the girls of the Belladonna rubbed their cheeks to give a "natural blush", buried her juice in the eyes to shine and dilate the pupil.
What is dangerous belladonna
The plant includes atropine, which causes poisoning. Atropine is found in roots, leaves, stems, fruits and flowers. Very often people confuse the berries of belladonna with wild cherries and consume them for food. It is enough for children to eat only 2-3 berries, and adults 15-20 berries to have a serious poisoning. Dangerous also the juice of the plant, if the contaminated hands touch the mucous membranes of the mouth and eyes, the skin of the face.
Therefore, you can not eat unknown berries and plants, and be careful when working with belladonna (use protective equipment, wash your hands with soap). Poisoning of the belladonna with alkaloids can also cause drugs, based on belladonna. Therefore, you need to keep dosage and caution when taking preparations from belladonna.
Symptoms of poisoning of belladonna
Symptoms of poisoning of belladonna are as follows:
- dryness, burning in the mouth and throat;
- difficulty swallowing;
- feeling a coma in the throat;
- a hoarse voice until utter loss;
- possibly the rash on the skin;
- the pupils are dilated, the clearness of seeing objects nearby is lost, there is no reaction to light;
- thirst, nausea, vomiting;
- rare urination and constipation, sometimes diarrhea;
- increased body temperature;
- increased heart rate to 150 beats per minute, arrhythmia;
- lowering blood pressure;
- severe shortness of breath;
- dryness and redness of the skin;
- edema of the face, forearms, lower legs;
- blue lips and mucous membranes;
- complete loss of orientation;
- motor excitation, sometimes convulsions;
- mental excitement, even to hallucinations and delusions.
Clinical picture of poisoning of belladonna
With the poisoning of belladonna, the first symptoms appear after 10-20 minutes. The victims have dry mouth, palpitations become more frequent, the skin and face become redder, the temperature rises, the pupils dilate, and there is no reaction to light. In the first minutes there is excitement, fussiness, vivacity. Thoughts of the victims change with lightning speed. Those who suffered were cheerful, fussy, talkative, laughing, dancing. The excitement is growing, hallucinations appear, some voices and sounds are heard. They can not distinguish colors, objects with dark color become bright. Patients constantly say something, whisper, perhaps, the emergence of attacks of aggression, rabies. About these patients they say "bleached belly". After the lapse of 8-12 hours, the victims gradually subside, there is a weakness, they fall asleep.
With a high concentration of poison in patients completely lost orientation. They have a marked mental, as well as motor excitement, right up to the cramps. The temperature rises, the pulse becomes weak filling, blood pressure decreases, dyspnea appears, lips become blue and mucous. Cardiovascular failure and stopping breathing when poisoning by bellies can cause death.
First aid and treatment
Immediately need to call an ambulance! And the first pre-hospital care should be started, without waiting for the doctor's arrival.
When poisoning belladonna necessary to do a gastric lavage. Patients need to induce profuse vomiting, to remove the poison from the body. For this, the injured person is given a solution to drink. Several solutions of a solution with a volume of 250 to 1250 ml:
- a weak solution of potassium permanganate (several potassium permanganates);
- loose tea;
- solution of table salt (from the calculation of 2-4 teaspoons per glass of warm water).
Tea and potassium permanganate contain tannin, which is able to bind the alkaloids of belladonna, which will not allow atropine to be absorbed into the stomach.
Vomiting can be caused by pressing a spoon on the root of the tongue. In case of severe condition, gastric lavage is carried out by the doctors through the probe, having previously oiled it with plenty of oil because of the dryness of the mucous membranes. If there is a need for repeated rinsing of the stomach, then it can be repeated after 60 minutes.
To remove toxins apply a suspension of activated carbon, for which 20-30 tablets need to be crushed and pour cold water about 200 ml.
In medicine, there are several antidotes from belladonna. Subcutaneously inject 1% Pilocarpin solution from 0.2 to 1 ml, or 0.05% Prozerin solution from 0.1 to 1 ml, or 0.1% Ezerin 0.1% 0.1 to 1 ml.
- To relieve mental agitation intramuscularly injected 2 ml of a 2.5% solution of Aminazine or subcutaneously with 2 ml of 1% solution of Promedol.
- To reduce body temperature, wipe with damp towels, cold on the head, wrapping with wet sheets. Intramuscularly injected solution of Amidopyrin 4% 10-20 ml.
- If breathing is disturbed, inhalation of moistened oxygen is used. If the patient can not breathe on his own, then he is transferred to the artificial respiration of the lungs. Subcutaneously injected solution Camphor 20% 1 ml.
- Cessation of weakness takes caffeine in tablets.
- Need rest and bed rest for the affected.
When poisoning belladonna requires mandatory hospitalization of all victims in the infectious disease department for thorough examination and treatment, despite the severity of poisoning. Complete recovery occurs from 14 to 20 days.
Severe poisoning can lead to death, the main causes of which are respiratory paralysis and cardiovascular failure.
Remember, belladonna is a very poisonous plant!