Poisoning with white mushrooms
"Quiet hunting", for all its harmlessness, can cause dangerous poisoning. In recent years, cases of poisoning with various edible mushrooms have been frequent, even quite experienced people who gather in the same places.
Let's find out whether it is possible to poison with white mushrooms? And also about his "doubles", the symptoms of poisoning, in which cases it can occur, about first aid and treatment.
Causes of Poisoning
Unfortunately, even useful, tasty, fragrant mushrooms are not an exception - they too can be poisoned. There are many reasons for the occurrence of white mushroom poisoning.
The use of false white mushrooms (bilious and satanic), outwardly similar to ordinary boletus.
- The collected white mushrooms were cooked from them at room temperature for more than 3 hours.
- The prepared dish was not stored in the refrigerator, which caused bacterial contamination.
- Delicious boletus is loved not only by people and forest "inhabitants", but also by worms, which release into the fungus pulp toxic exchange products that cause poisoning when consumed.
- The place of collection of ceps was located near the highway, railway lines, industrial or radiological zone, and they actively absorbed harmful toxic substances from soil or air.
- Insufficient cleaning of mushrooms before the hermetic closure of pickled edible mushrooms can cause the causative agent of botulism to enter the jar.
- Use for pickling aluminum or galvanized dishes.
- The use of overripe, old fungi, which contain toxic products of protein decomposition.
- Individual intolerance to fungal protein.
- Alcohol when used together with mushrooms dissolves the toxin contained in them - koprin (it does not dissolve without alcohol with digestive juices), which causes severe poisoning.
Symptoms of white mushroom poisoning
Poisoning by false white mushrooms (satanic and bile) is rare because their bitter taste not only does not disappear with cooking, but even increases - the dish becomes unfit for consumption. True, their bitter taste decreases with prolonged soaking and is masked by vinegar and spices when pickling and pickling. Therefore poisoning with "twins" of white mushrooms is possible in a salty and marinated form.
Some experts consider bilious fungus (gorchak) inedible, but not poisonous. However, foreign scientists have proved the presence in the pulp of its content of toxic substances, which are absorbed quickly by blood into the liver, affect its cells and gradually - at a high toxin dose - lead to cirrhosis. Moreover, toxins enter the bloodstream not only with the use of these fungi, but even absorbed through the skin upon contact with the bitter.
Mushroom pickers, who try to distinguish a boletus from a bile fungus, taste it on taste, feel weakness and dizziness during the day. Then these manifestations disappear, but after a few weeks symptoms of poisoning with false white fungi appear in the form of violations from the liver: violation of the outflow of bile, there may be jaundice of the skin and sclera, changes in functional liver samples.
Satan's mushroom is one of the most poisonous: the use of just 1 gram of its pulp causes poisoning. Particular danger is the use of it (for taste on taste) in its raw form: 10 g of pulp is enough for the development of paralysis of the nervous system and the subsequent death of a person.
When poisoning by fungi associated with any other cause of their toxicity, signs of intoxication appear (depending on the dose of toxins) after 2-12 hours, sometimes after 18. Characteristic of such symptoms are:
- pain in the abdomen;
- repeated vomiting;
- loose stools.
This can lead to dehydration of the victim's body, which is manifested by dry mouth, a decrease in the daily amount of urine or complete absence of it, a decrease in the turgor (elasticity) of the skin.
When bacterial contamination of the mushroom dish due to improper storage of it, an increase in temperature is added to the above-listed manifestations, and if it is intolerant to the protein of the fungi, it is pruritus. Botulism is characterized by acute visual impairment.
First aid and treatment
What to do when poisoning with white mushrooms? First you need to call an ambulance. First aid should be given before the arrival of doctors.
- Rinse the stomach: drink up to 1 liter of boiled water and induce vomiting (pressing the spoon on the root of the tongue). Repeat to clean wash water.
- Give any sorbent in a dose of 0.5-1 g / kg body weight (Enterosgel, Polyphepan, Activated Carbon or others).
- To put a cleansing enema.
- Provide a copious drink.
The doctor, after examining and assessing the severity of the patient's condition, decides whether to hospitalize the patient in the toxicology department. In the hospital, symptomatic treatment is performed:
- control of intoxication and dehydration;
- vitamin therapy;
- hepatoprotectors (if liver function is impaired);
- cardiac (if necessary);
- enzymes, etc.
Let's sum up - poisoning with mushrooms, possibly in case of using false fungi (bilious and satanic) instead of them, with their long storage after collection, contamination with toxic substances (one should not buy mushrooms in spontaneous markets), microorganisms. Also, trouble will not keep you waiting if you have them, washed down with alcohol, because of protein intolerance, when using metal dishes or using old, wormy mushrooms.
When poisoning it is necessary to call an ambulance and begin rendering first aid to the victim - gastric lavage, cleansing enema, sorbent intake and copious drinking.