Poisoning with porcini mushrooms
"Silent hunting", for all its harmlessness, can cause dangerous poisoning. In recent years, cases of poisoning by various edible mushrooms, even by quite experienced people collecting in the same places, have become frequent.
Let's find out if you can get poisoned with porcini mushrooms? And also about his "twins", symptoms of poisoning, in what cases it can happen, about first aid and treatment.
Causes of poisoning
Unfortunately, even healthy, tasty, fragrant boletus are not an exception - they can also be poisoned. The reasons for the occurrence of poisoning with porcini mushrooms are many.
The use of false white mushrooms (gall and satanic), externally similar to ordinary boletus mushrooms.
- Collected porcini mushrooms before cooking of them were at room temperature for more than 3 hours.
- The prepared dish was not stored in the refrigerator, which caused its bacterial contamination.
- Delicious boletus is loved not only by people and forest “inhabitants”, but also by worms that release toxic products of metabolism into the mushroom pulp that cause poisoning when consumed.
- The place of gathering of white mushrooms was near the highway, railway lines, industrial or radiological zone, and they actively absorbed harmful toxic substances from the soil or air.
- Insufficient cleaning of mushrooms before hermetic sealing of pickled edible boletus can cause botulism pathogen to enter the can.
- Use for salting aluminum or galvanized dishes.
- Use of overripe, old fungi, which contain toxic products of protein decomposition.
- Individual intolerance of mushroom protein.
- Alcohol combined with boletus dissolves the toxin contained in them - koprin (it does not dissolve without alcohol by the digestive juices), which causes severe poisoning.
Symptoms of mushroom poisoning
Poisoning with false porcini mushrooms (satanic and biliary) is rarely found due to the fact that their bitter taste does not disappear during cooking, but even increases - the dish becomes unsuitable for consumption. True, their bitter taste is reduced by prolonged soaking and masked with vinegar and seasonings during salting and pickling. Therefore, poisoning by the “twins” of white mushrooms is possible in salted and pickled form.
Some experts consider gall mushroom (gorchak) inedible, but non-toxic. However, foreign scientists have proved the presence in the pulp of its toxic content, which, after absorption, are quickly introduced into the liver by blood, infecting its cells and gradually - with a high dose of toxin - lead to cirrhosis. Moreover, toxins enter the blood not only through the use of these mushrooms, but even being absorbed through the skin upon contact with a bitter tree.
Mushroom pickers that try to distinguish a boletus from a gall fungus, while tasting it, feel weakness and dizziness during the day. Then these manifestations disappear, but after a few weeks, symptoms of poisoning with false porcine mushrooms appear in the form of liver disorders: impaired bile outflow, jaundice of the skin and sclera, changes in liver function tests may appear.
Satanic mushroom - one of the most poisonous: the use of only 1 gram of its pulp causes poisoning. It is particularly dangerous to use it (for a taste test) in its raw form: 10 g of flesh is enough for the development of paralysis of the nervous system and subsequent death of a person.
When boronik poisoning associated with any other cause of their toxicity, signs of intoxication appear (depending on the dose of toxins) after 2-12 hours, sometimes after 18. These symptoms are typical:
- pain in the abdomen;
- repeated vomiting;
- loose stools.
This can lead to dehydration of the victim, which is manifested by dry mouth, a decrease in the daily amount of urine or its complete absence, a decrease in turgor (elasticity) of the skin.
With bacterial contamination of the mushroom dish due to improper storage, an increase in temperature is added to the above-listed manifestations, and in case of intolerance of the fungal protein, skin itchiness is added. Botulism is characterized by acute visual impairment.
First aid and treatment
What to do in case of poisoning with porcini mushrooms? First you need to call an ambulance. First aid should be given before the arrival of doctors.
- Wash the stomach: drink up to 1 liter of boiled water and induce vomiting (pressing on the root of the tongue with a spoon). Repeat until clean wash water.
- Give any sorbent in a dose of 0.5–1 g / kg body weight (Enterosgel, Polyphepan, Activated Carbon, or others).
- Put a cleansing enema.
- Provide plenty of drink.
The doctor, after examining and assessing the severity of the patient's condition, decides on the need for hospitalization of the patient in the toxicological department. In the hospital, symptomatic treatment is carried out:
- fight against intoxication and dehydration;
- vitamin therapy;
- hepatoprotectors (in violation of the functions of the liver);
- cordial (if necessary);
- enzymes, etc.
To summarize - poisoning with boletus mushrooms, possibly if false white mushrooms (biliary and satanic) are used instead, if they are stored for a long time after collection, when contaminated with toxic substances (you should not buy mushrooms on natural markets), microorganisms. Also, the trouble does not take long if you eat them, drinking alcohol, because of protein intolerance, when using metal utensils or eating old, wormy mushrooms.
In case of poisoning, it is necessary to call an ambulance and start providing first aid to the victim — gastric lavage, a cleansing enema, ingestion of sorbents, and abundant drinking.