Gasoline vapor poisoning
Gasoline poisoning for a modern person is a rather urgent problem. The risk of being in the role of the victim exists both at the worker of the oil refinery or the gas station, and at the housewife who has started repair with use of gasoline, as solvent.
Therefore, it is necessary to know the signs of such poisoning with different ways of its penetration into the body, and how to give a person first aid in gasoline poisoning. About this and talk.
Properties of gasoline and its possible impact on humans
Gasoline is widely used in industry and in everyday life, and first of all, as fuel for cars and all sorts of equipment. Due to its properties, it is also used as a solvent for fats and varnishes, rubber and paint.
At medium temperatures, it can easily evaporate. Its vapors accumulate in the lower layers of the air in the room, due to a higher density than air.
The toxicity of gasoline is determined by the type and amount of hydrocarbons with a narcotic effect, the most dangerous of them are aromatic hydrocarbons.
Given its volatility, gasoline vapor poisoning occurs mainly when it enters the body through the respiratory tract. An equally important route of entry is through the skin and mucous membranes, as fat solvent. It is not excluded the flow through the food canal.
Depending on the concentration (dose) of gasoline and the time of its impact on a person, acute and chronic poisoning of varying severity occurs.
Symptoms of acute and chronic gasoline poisoning
In the case of relatively short-term inhalation of low concentrations, symptoms of poisoning with mild and moderate gasoline vapors are observed, similar to alcohol intoxication:
- mental excitement of euphoria and unreasonable laughter;
- weakness and redness of the skin;
- dizziness and unsteady gait;
- irritation of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract;
- possibly nausea and vomiting;
- rapid pulse (tachycardia) and palpitations.
In severe poisoning in a patient:
- there is no consciousness;
- temperature rises to 40 ° C;
- sometimes there are convulsions — tonic and clonic; tendon reflexes increase;
- hallucinations are not excluded.
Fulminant form of poisoning occurs when high concentrations of gasoline in the air of the working area (accidents and spills, cleaning large storage tanks), is characterized by a sharp loss of consciousness and a sudden cessation of breathing.
"Petrol pneumonia" occurs as a result of this fuel getting into the lungs when trying to drain from the tank and sucking it into the hose. This condition is manifested by symptoms:
- pain in the side of the affected lung and blueness of the skin;
- shortness of breath on exertion, in severe case - at rest;
- cough accompanied by rusty sputum (presence of blood in the sputum);
- violation of the general condition with a rise in temperature.
In case of accidental ingestion of gasoline and its penetration into the stomach, reusable vomiting appears in copious amounts and loose stools, the victim complains of abdominal pain, liver damage is possible due to non-infectious hepatitis - the liver is enlarged and painful, in combination with icteric skin and mucous membranes, weakness.
Symptoms of chronic gasoline poisoning occur during prolonged use under conditions of constant influence and manifest themselves:
- disorders of the nervous system with signs of hysteria or neurasthenia;
- complaints of constant fatigue, decreased performance and weakness;
- pressure drops, sleep is disturbed and the ability to recognize odors is reduced;
- eating disorder;
- women have reproductive disorders - problems with the menstrual cycle.
Prolonged contact of gasoline with the skin causes the development of eczema or acute inflammation occurs.
Gasoline substance abuse refers to a dangerous phenomenon among adolescents. They inhale his vapors for sensations of euphoria and hallucinations. Its characteristic features are quick addiction, damage to the nervous system with irreversible damage to the intellect in a short time. If you do not stop the so-called entertainment in the initial stage, the child becomes disabled.
First aid for gasoline poisoning
What to do in case of gasoline vapor poisoning? First aid for such poisoning is in the following activities:
- remove the injured person from the room with gasoline vapor;
- provide fresh air;
- organize a warm drink, not below body temperature, in sufficient quantity for faster removal of toxins;
- wrap the patient with a blanket, given the increased need for warmth;
- It is recommended to take activated carbon.
In case of severe poisoning and weak breathing, it is necessary to use an oxygen pillow.
The stomach should be flushed when gasoline enters the alimentary canal, the procedure is carried out using a probe to obtain clean wash water. Then, vegetable oil and / or activated carbon solution is introduced through the probe.
Treatment with gasoline poisoning
In the case of severe gasoline poisoning treatment is recommended in the hospital, which includes:
- bed rest;
- a diet enriched with vitamins - C, PP, B1, and minerals - calcium, iron preparations;
- detoxification therapy - intravenous administration of solutions of glucose, isotonic solution;
- symptomatic therapy - with damage to the liver and kidneys, aimed at restoring their function.
Mild poisoning after consultation and obtaining the results of laboratory tests does not require hospitalization.
Preventive measures are aimed at compliance with safety regulations:
- ensuring effective ventilation (ventilation) both at the enterprises and in everyday life;
- use of personal protective equipment (gas masks, gloves);
- conducting regular medical examinations of persons working with gasoline and its derivatives;
- temporary suspension from production under harmful conditions or transfer to safer work.
Thus, knowing the likelihood of gasoline vapor poisoning, you should apply precautions when working with it. In case of poisoning, follow the approximate sequence of actions described above. It is equally important to monitor the behavior of "difficult" adolescents and, at the first suspicion of poisoning, immediately check their validity.