Poisonous toadstool poisoning - symptoms and first aid
Among the food poisonings in severity one of the first places is poisoning by mushrooms, especially pale toadstool. Along with botulism, this is the most dangerous disease, since the probability of death reaches 90% of cases.
There are many poisonous mushrooms, but pale toadstool is the most insidious and terrible representative of this group. Therefore, let's look at why it is so dangerous, what are the symptoms of poisoning with pale toadstool and how to help the victim.
How to distinguish a toadstool from other fungi
A pale toadstool has a characteristic belt (ring) on its leg, and it has a Volvo - a foil sac at the base of the stem, 3-5 centimeters wide. The plates of the caps are always white, which distinguishes the pale toadstool from the champignon. On the break, the pulp does not change color, its smell and taste are poorly expressed.
What is the difference between the pale toadstool from the mushrooms that look like it?
- russules and greenfinchs do not have rings and volvs;
- champignons do not have volva, and with age the cap plates turn brownish;
- the floats do not have a ring on the leg and a small size.
Important! You can not cut the mushroom under the cap - so you can not notice the film ring and Volvo, characteristic of a pale toadstool. Poisonous mushrooms are often confused with edible precisely because of falling into the general mass of unidentified pieces.
In the poisoning observed seasonality. They occur, starting in mid-summer and ending in October. The peak of the disease occurs in August.
The poison of the toadstool and its effect on the human body
For practical purposes, there are two groups of toxins that are present in the pale toadstool:
- and alpha amanitines.
Phalloidins are less poisonous, but act quickly and are not destroyed by heat treatment. Amanitins are more poisonous, but act a little slower. All of them are not digested in the intestines and unchanged in the liver, which takes the brunt.
Poisons cause strong gastroenteritis, destroy the internal structure of the liver cells and its fatty degeneration, violate the integrity of the intestinal capillaries and all internal organs. Cause a strong decrease in the level of glucose in the blood, violate the overall metabolism as a whole affect the central nervous system.
Symptoms of poisoning with pale toadstool
In clinical practice, there are several periods of the course of the disease in case of poisonous death by poison. Symptoms depend on the severity of the process and the amount of poison produced.
- The latent period without manifestation of any signs of poisoning. Lasts from 7 to 40 hours, on average just over 12 hours. This is a very characteristic feature for toadstools of the toadstool. It allows you to quite accurately diagnose with mushroom poisoning, and it is also the cause of the severe course of the disease. Most of the poison, by the time the first signs of malaise appeared, had already entered the bloodstream and began its destructive work.
- The second period lasts 1–2 days, less often up to 6 days. Suddenly, frequent and stormy diarrhea of yellow-green and clay-green color, which in a few hours becomes slimy or watery. Sometimes visible impurities of blood. Repeated vomiting, great thirst, which does not quench, and the intake of water again causes vomiting spasms. Acute intestinal colic and abdominal cramps. As a result of severe dehydration, a drop in blood pressure develops, pallor, and an increase in pulse are noted. Headaches, dizziness, blurred vision are possible. When the body loses chlorine caused by vomiting and diarrhea, seizures develop, especially the calf muscles. The blood thickens, little or no urine is excreted.
- The period of imaginary recovery. This is also a characteristic moment of poisoning the poison toadstool. It lasts no more than a day. At this time, the patient's well-being improves significantly, it seems that he went on the mend. At the same time, the analysis of blood biochemistry shows abnormal liver function. In severe poisoning, after 10-12 hours, completely suddenly, against the background of drowsiness, collapse develops and death occurs. Most doctors consider the third day to be a crisis.
- The defeat of the internal organs. Manifestation of the yellowness of the mucous membranes of the mouth, eyes and sclera. She is accompanied by heaviness and pain in the right hypochondrium. Diarrhea and colic recur. Toxic hepatitis and nephropathy develop. In severe cases, the symptoms of pale toadstool poisoning correspond to signs of renal and hepatic failure, and acute heart failure, as a result of which death occurs.
Death with poisonous toadstool usually occurs within 10 days. A big role in this issue is the state of the heart and blood vessels. In the event of a favorable outcome, with a mild degree of poisoning, recovery occurs fairly quickly. A longer rehabilitation period is required for moderate to severe poisoning — two, three, or four weeks; sometimes it can take several months. Jaundice disappears on average in two weeks. Recovery is usually complete: the liver and other organs resume their work in the original volume.
First aid for poisoning
First aid for poisoning with a toadstool often does not have the desired effect, since a lot of time has passed since the poison was introduced into the body. If you suspect poisoning, you must contact the hospital as soon as possible for antitoxic therapy. The prognosis is favorable if treatment is started no later than 36 hours after eating the fungus. Treat the whole group of persons suspected of having the disease.
Before the arrival of the ambulance brigade, you can take general measures of detoxification:
- If there is still no vomiting, all persons who ate a mushroom dish should clear the stomach. To do this, drink warm water 1-2 liters, induce vomiting, pressing on the root of the tongue.
- Take activated carbon in a dose of 1 gram per 1 kilogram of weight.
Treatment in poisoning with pale toadstool
It is difficult to treat poisoning with pale toadstool, since the poison most likely has already been absorbed into the blood, but there is no specific antidote. In the hospital produce the following actions.
- They wash the stomach, even if there is vomiting - the remains of the fungus can persist in the gastrointestinal tract for 20 hours.
- Antidote therapy is not currently developed. Benzyl-penicillin is used, if not more than three days have passed since the moment of poisoning, in a dose of 500 thousand to 1 million units per kilogram of weight, divided into six doses. Silibinin in a daily dose of 30 mg per kg for 10-12 days. There are reports that in some cases the use of lipoic acid is effective - up to 300 mg per day.
- Fight against dehydration: Acesol, Trisol, Ringer's solution, saline solution is injected intravenously. They put a drip with glucose to protect the liver tissue and eliminate hypoglycemia. If necessary, carry out the replenishment of chlorides - intravenously or give the patient to drink salt water.
- To accelerate the elimination of toxins from the body, hemosorption and forced diuresis are performed.
- Assign cardiac agents and drugs, tonic vasomotor center.
- Apply proteolytic enzymes (Kontrikal, Gordoks) for the prevention of DIC syndrome (increased blood clotting).
- Hepatic Therapy: B-group vitamins, in particular, Nicotinamide and Riboxin.
The outcome of treatment primarily depends on the dose of poison taken and the general condition of the body.
Preventing poison with a toadstool
To prevent poisoning with a toadstool, remember that it is dangerous to take unfamiliar mushrooms in the forest, to buy them from private individuals. It is necessary to be guided by the golden rule of the mushroom picker: "Do not know - do not take", "Doubt - do not eat."
Remember the basic rules, the knowledge of which, perhaps, will help save lives:
- most often poisoning occurs when inadvertently mixing a pale toadstool with champignons;
- a characteristic feature of the disease is the manifestation of diarrhea and vomiting after a long time (more than 12 hours) after ingestion of mushrooms;
- if one member of the group is poisoned, it is necessary to take steps to clean the stomach for everyone - induce vomiting, drink activated charcoal and immediately seek medical help.
With timely treatment, the prognosis for recovery is favorable, and the liver after poisoning is fully restored due to its unique regenerative properties.