Poisoning with pale toadstool - symptoms and pre-medical help
Among food poisonings in terms of severity, one of the first places is poisoning with mushrooms, especially pale toadstool. Along with botulism, this is the most dangerous disease, since the likelihood of a fatal outcome reaches 90% of cases.
There are many poisonous mushrooms, but the pale toadstool is the most insidious and terrible representative of this group. So let's figure out why it is so dangerous, what will be the symptoms of poisoning pale toadstool and how to help the victim.
How to distinguish pale toadstool from other mushrooms
Pale toadstool has on the leg a characteristic girdle (ring) and it has a volvah - a baggy pouch at the base of the leg in a width of 3-5 sentiment. The plates of the hat are always white, which distinguishes a pale toadstool from a champignon. At the break, the flesh does not change color, the smell and taste of it are poorly expressed.
What is the difference between a pale toadstool and mushrooms that look similar to it?
- russula and green leaf have no ring and volva;
- the champignons have no volva, and with age, the plates of the cap are colored brownish;
- the float does not have a ring on the foot and a small size.
Important! You can not cut the mushroom under the bonnet - so you can not notice the ringed ring and the vow, characteristic of the pale toadstool. Poisonous mushrooms are often confused with edible because of the ingress of unidentified pieces into the total mass.
Poisoning is seasonal. They occur, beginning in the middle of summer and ending in October. The peak of the disease is in August.
Poison of pale toadstool and its effect on the human body
For practical significance, two groups of toxins are isolated that are present in the pale toadstool:
- and alpha-amanitines.
Falloidins are less toxic, but act quickly and do not break down when heat treated. Amanitins are more toxic, but a little slower. All of them are not digested in the intestines and go unchanged to the liver, which takes the main blow.
Poisons cause severe gastroenteritis, destroy the internal structure of the liver cells and its fatty degeneration, disrupt the integrity of the capillaries of the intestine and all internal organs. Causes a strong decrease in blood glucose levels, disrupt the overall metabolism as a whole affect the central nervous system.
Symptoms of poisoning pale toadstool
In clinical practice, several periods of the disease course are isolated during poisoning with pale toadstool. Symptoms depend on the severity of the process and the amount of poison obtained.
- Latent period without any signs of poisoning. Lasts from 7 to 40 hours, an average of just over 12 hours. This is a very characteristic feature for the toxins of pale toadstool. It allows you to accurately diagnose with fungal poisoning, and it is also the cause of severe disease. Most of the poison, by the time the first signs of malaise appeared, had already entered the bloodstream and began its destructive work.
- The second period lasts 1-2 days, less often up to 6 days. Suddenly, a frequent and violent diarrhea appears yellow-green and clay-green, after a few hours it becomes mucous or watery. Sometimes visible are the admixtures of blood. Multiple vomiting, severe thirst, which does not quench, and water intake again causes vomiting spasms. Acute intestinal colic and spastic pain in the abdomen. As a result of severe dehydration, the drop in arterial pressure develops, pallor, rapidity of the pulse is noted. Possible headaches, dizziness, blurred vision. With the loss of chlorine by the body caused by vomiting and diarrhea, seizures develop, especially the calf muscles. Blood condenses, there is little or no urine.
- Period of imaginary recovery. This is also a characteristic moment of poisons poisoning pale toadstool. It lasts no more than a day. At this time the patient feels better, it seems that he has recovered. At the same time, the analysis of blood biochemistry shows a violation of liver function. With severe poisoning after 10-12 hours, suddenly, against the background of sleepiness, a collapse develops and death occurs. Most doctors consider the third day a crisis.
- The defeat of internal organs. Yellowness of mucous membranes of the oral cavity, eyes and sclera is manifested. She is accompanied by heaviness and pain in the right hypochondrium. Diarrhea and colic are renewed. Develop toxic hepatitis and nephropathy. At a severe degree, the symptoms of poisoning with pale toadstool correspond to the signs of renal and hepatic insufficiency, acute heart failure resulting in death.
Lethal outcome when poisoning pale toadstool usually occurs within 10 days. A major role in this matter is played by the state of the heart and blood vessels. In the case of a favorable outcome, with a mild degree of poisoning, recovery occurs fairly quickly. A longer period of rehabilitation is required for moderate to severe poisoning - two, three or four weeks, sometimes it can take several months. Jaundice disappears on average in two weeks. Recovery is usually complete: the liver and other organs resume their work in the original volume.
First aid for poisoning
The first help in poisoning pale toadstool often does not have the desired effect, since after the introduction of poison into the body it took a long time. If you suspect a poisoning, you should contact the hospital as soon as possible to perform antitoxic therapy. The prognosis is favorable if the treatment is started no later than 36 hours after eating the mushroom in food. The whole group of suspected persons should be treated.
Before the arrival of the ambulance team, you can take general measures of detoxification:
- If there is still vomiting, all persons who have consumed a mushroom dish, clean the stomach. To do this, drink warm water 1-2 liters, induce vomiting, pressing on the root of the tongue.
- Take activated charcoal in a dose of 1 gram per 1 kilogram of weight.
Treatment for poisoning pale toadstool
It is difficult to treat poisoning with a pale toadstool, as the poison most likely has already been absorbed into the blood, but there is no specific antidote. In the hospital, the following actions are performed.
- Rinse the stomach, even if there is vomiting - the remains of the fungus can persist in the gastrointestinal tract for 20 hours.
- Antidote therapy is not currently developed. Apply benzyl-penicillin, if from the moment of poisoning has passed no more than three days, in a dose of 500 thousand to 1 million units per kilogram of weight, divided into six methods. Silibinin in a daily dose of 30 mg per kg for 10-12 days. There are reports that in some cases it is effective to use lipoic acid - up to 300 mg per day.
- Fighting with dehydration: intravenously injected Acesol, Trisol, Ringer's solution, saline solution. They put a dropper with glucose to protect the hepatic tissue and eliminate hypoglycemia. If necessary, replenish chlorides - intravenously or give the patient to drink salt water.
- To accelerate the removal of toxins from the body, hemosorption and forced diuresis are carried out.
- Assign heart means and drugs that tonic the vasomotor center.
- Apply proteolytic enzymes (Contrikal, Gordoks) for the prevention of DIC syndrome (increased blood coagulability).
- Hepatic therapy: vitamins of group B, in particular, Nicotinamide and Riboxin.
The outcome of treatment depends primarily on the dose of the poison taken and the general condition of the body.
Prevention of poisoning pale toadstool
To prevent poisoning pale toadstool remember that it is dangerous to take in the forest unfamiliar mushrooms, buy them from individuals. It is necessary to be guided by the golden rule of the mushroom picker: "You do not know - do not take it", "You doubt - do not eat".
Remember the basic rules, knowledge of which, perhaps, will help save lives:
- most often poisoning occurs when an unintentional blending of pale toadstool with champignons;
- a characteristic feature of the disease - the manifestation of diarrhea and vomiting after a long (more than 12 hours) period after taking mushrooms for food;
- when one member of a group is poisoned, measures should be taken to clean the stomach for everyone - induce vomiting, drink activated charcoal and immediately seek medical help.
With timely treatment, the prognosis for recovery is favorable, and the liver after poisoning is completely restored due to its unique regenerative properties.