An important microelement for the human body is zinc, which participates in life processes at any age. He enters the body with food. Deficiency of it, as well as excess of the normal level, cause serious health consequences.
Zinc and its compounds are used in many industries where contact with these substances is possible for workers engaged in production. Under certain conditions, perhaps even poisoning.
About daily requirements for zinc, about products rich in it, the causes of poisoning and its manifestations, about treatment - we will find out below.
The role of zinc for the body
The human body contains 1.5-2 g of zinc. Basically, it accumulates in the muscles, liver, skin, prostate gland. The daily requirement is depending on the sex and age of 8 to 15 mg, the maximum allowable intake is 25 mg. The need for a microelement is higher in athletes, during pregnancy.
The value of zinc for the body is invaluable:
- it regulates the functions of the nervous system (improves memory and attention);
- is part of more than 200 enzymes and is involved in the metabolism, normalizes digestion;
- has a beneficial effect on the immune system;
regulates the hormonal background of a woman during pregnancy, reducing the risk of miscarriage;
- promotes the production of sex hormones and the activity of spermatozoa;
- is included in the hormone of the pancreas insulin, which controls the level of glucose;
- is necessary for the development and growth of the body, puberty;
- Important for the formation of the skeleton, the growth of nails and hair;
- has antitoxic action;
- participates in hematopoiesis;
- accelerates the healing of wounds;
- provides a sense of taste, smell, visual acuity.
What causes zinc deficiency?
The cause of the deficit may be the use of drugs (calcium and folic acid, diuretics, anabolics, immunosuppressors), the use of oral contraceptives and alcohol abuse.
The lack of trace element in the body is evidenced by the following signs:
lag in development;
- decreased appetite;
- impairment of taste and smell;
- decreased vision in the dark;
- poor wound healing;
- frequent infectious diseases;
- white specks on the nails;
- skin diseases;
- underdevelopment of the genital organs in men (hypogonadism).
Zinc is found in animal and vegetable products. But from plant products, it is poorly digested. The greatest amount of trace element is in seafood. For example, 1 oyster provides 70% of the daily intake rate for an adult.
Rich in zinc:
- sea kale;
- poultry meat and beef;
Zinc is found in vegetables:
- pumpkin seeds.
Zinc-containing fruits and berries are:
A small amount of trace element is found in cereals:
- in sprouted wheat;
- pumpkin and sunflower seeds;
- for galvanizing dishes;
- processing of iron products (anti-corrosion protection);
- obtaining alloys with other metals;
- production of zinc and printing inks;
- textile industry - production of artificial fiber, dyeing of fabrics;
- production of matches;
- manufacture of glass and ceramics;
- pulp and paper industry;
- during tinning and soldering.
dryness and smack of metal in the mouth;
- nausea, vomiting, diarrhea;
- abdominal pain;
- general weakness, drowsiness;
- pain in the muscles;
- chest pain, cough, shortness of breath;
- fever (up to 39-40 ° C) with chills and sweat perspiration (after 4-5 hours);
signs of a burn of the oral mucosa and other parts of the digestive tract;
- repeated vomiting with blood;
- repeated convulsions in the calf muscles;
- at a severe degree of poisoning, acute cardiovascular failure may occur with a drop in blood pressure (by the type of collapse).
- atrophy of mucous airways;
- digestive disorders;
- decrease in blood sugar and cholesterol levels;
- the patient is worried about fatigue, tinnitus, hearing loss, sleep disturbance, irritability, a tendency to digestive and respiratory diseases;
- the liver and kidney damage gradually develops.
Zinc and its compounds are used in such industries as:
Causes of zinc poisoning
An excess of zinc can be created in the body with excess intake through respiration (under production conditions) or through the digestive system. This substance is excreted with feces and urine.
In the course of production activities, zinc vapor poisoning may occur due to violation of safety rules by foundry workers, during the extraction and processing of zinc ore.
Zinc poisoning when welding galvanized pipes occurs quite often. In a solid state, this metal is not dangerous.
The preparation or storage of food in galvanized dishes can also lead to poisoning. Especially dangerous is the storage and manufacture of acidic foods - vegetable and fruit juices, sauerkraut, jelly and compotes. This is due to the fact that zinc dissolves in an acidic environment.
An overdose of zinc can occur when a patient uses medicines and food supplements containing more than 150 mg of this microelement per day. Danger presents and packages or containers for beverages and products that contribute to the formation of toxic zinc compounds.
Symptoms of poisoning
Poisoning as a result of an overabundance of zinc in the body is acute and chronic. Acute poisoning develops usually when breathing in fumes (after 12 hours), that is, an excess of zinc is created when it comes through the respiratory system.
Acute zinc poisoning is manifested by symptoms:
With a severe degree of poisoning, inflammation of the lungs, coma, and even death can develop.
When receiving through the mouth, an excess of zinc in the body has symptoms:
With chronic poisoning develop:
Treatment for zinc vapor poisoning includes the following procedures.
- Alkaline inhalations.
- Introduction 20 ml of 40% glucose solution and 5 ml of 5% solution of ascorbic acid intravenously.
- The dacha of oxygen.
- As an antidote intramuscular injection of "Unithiol" 5-10 ml of 5% solution up to 4 times a day.
- Hot, plentiful drink.
- If necessary, cardiac preparations, "Eufillin", non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and others.
- In severe cases, connect the artificial ventilation of the lungs.
At food poisoning with zinc, the stomach and intestines are washed with a 3% solution of baking soda and a salt laxative is used. Drink give mucous decoctions and milk. At the expressed pains prescribe anesthetics and spend symptomatic treatment.
The accelerated excretion of zinc from the body is facilitated not only by the introduction of Unithiol from the calculation of 3 mg / kg, but also by the use of calcium disodium EDTA (sometimes it is combined with dimercaprol).
Let's sum up. Zinc is indispensable for the body - it is not accidental that it is called the microelement of youth. Fans of dairy and vegetarian diets should be mindful of the consequences of the deficiency of this miraculous trace element.
To avoid poisoning, it is necessary to observe safety precautions in the workplace, do not use galvanized dishes, take care of the use of bioadditives carefully.