Poisoning dope ordinary
Datura ordinary - fairly common plant. It has healing properties. Therefore, its various parts are used for medical purposes.
Some people try to do it themselves. The result is a poisoning dope.
A lot of drugs containing alkaloids of this plant are produced. With their overdose, it is also possible that symptoms of intoxication appear. The most dangerous are the seeds. Often suffer children who can accidentally use them. Since the plant causes hallucinations, it is used as a drug.
Why does poisoning occur?
The cause of poisoning with dope ordinary are alkaloids contained in it:
- scopolamine (hyoscine);
These substances block the M-cholinergic receptors found in the human body. Such receptors are found in the smooth muscle organs of the digestive system, bronchi, urinary system, muscles of the eye, heart, blood vessels, glands, and the central nervous system. The termination of the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine on the receptor apparatus leads to the appearance of those symptoms that arise as a result of poisoning with the seeds of the dope. Neurotransmitters are biologically active substances by means of which the impulse is transmitted from one nerve cell (neuron) to another, as well as from a neuron to a muscle cell. When blocking the transfer of impulse muscle relaxes. This is the manifestation of the antispasmodic effect of the poison.
It is possible to single out the main effects of the dope alkaloids acting on various organs and systems.
- The organ of view. When the circular muscle of the iris is relaxed, the pupil expands. By reducing the tone of the ciliary muscle, the lens of the eye becomes flatter. Nearby subjects become impossible to consider. And the pupil can not reduce its diameter. Therefore, photophobia occurs.
- Digestive organs. Reduced tone and physical activity of all departments: the esophagus, stomach, biliary system, intestines.
- Bronchial tree. The muscles of the bronchi and bronchioles relax.
- Urinary system. The motor activity of the ureters and bladder is noticeably weakened.
- Glandular organs. Secretion of all glands, except dairy is reduced. The formation of saliva, tear fluid, gastric juice, sweat and bronchial mucus is reduced.
Symptoms of dope poisoning
The rapid development of the clinic and the severity of symptoms of intoxication depend on the dose of the toxin ingested. Atropine is very rapidly absorbed when it enters the digestive system, especially if taken on an empty stomach. When a small dose of poison is ingested, symptoms may appear after an hour or two. The severity of poisoning with dope is usually mild. If the dose is high enough, then the appropriate clinic appears within minutes after eating the plant. The condition is rapidly deteriorating. This corresponds to a severe degree of intoxication.
As a result of the action of the alkaloids of the dope, characteristic symptoms appear:
- dilated pupils, blurred vision (inability to see at close range) and photophobia;
- mucous membranes and skin are dry, sweating is reduced, reddening of the face and other parts of the body, hyperthermia (fever);
- violation of swallowing, constipation;
- severe tachycardia (heart palpitations);
- speech blurring, agitation (motor and mental), hallucinations, impaired coordination, convulsions, atropine psychosis develops;
- violation of urination.
In severe cases, the poison causes a significant expansion of the capillaries, a drop in blood pressure occurs. In the end - coma and respiratory arrest.
First aid for dope poisoning
As soon as the first symptoms of poisoning with dope appeared, it is necessary to urgently call an ambulance!
Before the arrival of the brigade, if the victim is conscious, it is necessary:
- Rinse the stomach. In the water used for this purpose, add activated carbon (up to 30 grams.). Strong tea can also save the situation, as it contains tannin, which has an astringent effect. A weak solution of potassium permanganate and saline solution (15–30 g of ordinary salt per cup of water) will do.
- You can give a laxative, preferably saline: 30 mg of sodium sulfate or magnesium, dissolved in a quarter glasses of water.
- For fever, put a cold, wet towel on your head, and wipe with cool water.
- Poisoned put in a dark room.
- If there are signs of cardiac arrest and respiration, a complex of resuscitation measures is performed: heart massage, artificial respiration from mouth to nose (or mouth).
A person's life depends on how quickly and competently the first aid is provided for dope poisoning.
As soon as the ambulance arrives, the treatment is carried out by a doctor.
Treatment for dope poisoning
If a person is unconscious, then a professional will do the gastric lavage. To do this, use a probe that is oiled, usually petroleum jelly. At the end of the procedure, a laxative (salt) or oil (petrolatum) is injected. If you can not flush the stomach - make a siphon enema.
In case of poisoning with dope, treatment includes the following measures:
- An antidote is administered - an opposite drug (cholinomimetic). Often used Prozerin subcutaneously from 2 to 5 mg. Sometimes the drug is administered intravenously. Dosing is repeated every hour or two (until the pupils constrict). Perhaps the use of Galantamine.
- Diazepam (Sibazon, Relanium) in a dose of up to 0.4 ml is used to eliminate seizure syndrome and psychomotor agitation. If the dose is exceeded, a malfunction of the vital centers may occur.
- In case of hyperthermia, a 50% solution of analginum (1–2 ml) is administered.
Further treatment is carried out in the toxicology department. Depending on the condition of the patient carry out:
- Repeated administration of antidote.
- Forced diuresis: abundant alkaline drinking (up to three or even five liters per day) with simultaneous intake of diuretics. Solutions and diuretic drugs can be administered intravenously.
- If necessary, hemosorption is carried out.
- In case of impaired respiratory function, tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation are performed.
- Symptomatic treatment involves the use of funds that stimulate the heart and respiratory system (Cordiamin, Camphor, Ephedrine, etc.).
Consequences of dope poisoning
In case of poisoning with dope, the consequences depend on the severity of acute poisoning. For a long time mental disorders may persist.
With a systematic reception may appear:
- memory loss;
- mental disorders: mania, anxiety, anxiety, drowsiness;
- intestinal disorders;
- eye diseases, including glaucoma;
- violation of urination.
In order to prevent the possibility of poisoning, you should not grow this plant in the garden plots - it should be inaccessible, especially for children. Use only on the recommendation of a specialist.