According to statistics, every minute three people die in the world, having poisoned themselves with smoke. Because of the fire of forests and peat bogs in some regions of Russia, it is difficult to escape from the smoke even in the apartments of cities. Often there are fires in the houses themselves. In autumn, from the burning of fallen leaves, many garden owners also do not want to refuse, polluting the atmosphere and exerting a poisonous effect not only on their bodies, but also on those around them.
The causes of the harmful effects of smoke on the body in various situations (in case of fires, burning fires, burning food, plastic and other products made from artificial materials), manifestations of poisoning, first aid and treatment you will learn from this article.
Causes of smoke poisoning
In case of fire, the danger is not only an open fire. Smoke poisoning of smoldering materials in case of fire occurs due to the ingress of smoke through the respiratory tract. The poisoning effect is provided primarily by two substances in it:
- carbon monoxide;
- and hydrogen cyanide - dangerous even in a small amount.
The presence of cyanide in the smoke is due to the fact that it is present in building materials.
Carbon dioxide blocks hemoglobin, thereby violating the supply of oxygen to various organs, oxygen starvation develops. Cyanide disrupts energy metabolism in the tissue structure and cellular respiration.
When burning various materials, irritating gases are formed, which, when combined with water, form corrosive solutions - nitric, sulfuric and sulfuric acids, ammonia. They cause damage (chemical burn) of the mucous respiratory tract, narrowing of the small bronchi and accumulation in the lung fluid.
In the smoke there can be a highly toxic gas phosgene, formed when the contents of the fire extinguisher contact the hot surface.
Can I smoke with smoke while sitting by the fire? It turns out that the smoke from the fire is as damaging to the body as the smoke of cigarettes. When food is compulsory cooked on the bonfire, the amount of tar comes to the body daily, equivalent to smoking 2 packs of cigarettes. Children and pregnant women are most susceptible to smoke poisoning from a fire. They suffer from chronic diseases of the respiratory system, and infants are born. Cataract develops from the smoke.
When burning garbage, fallen leaves, too, there is a danger: plastic bottles, grass with roadside pollution with diesel fuel, gasoline and so on get into the garbage.
Especially dangerous are the poisoning by smoke from the burning of plastic, foam rubber, paints and varnishes, plywood - the resulting phosgene and dioxin, cause malignant diseases, and cyanides contribute to the development of the strongest allergic reactions.
In wet weather, toxic substances are combined with water vapor, hang in the air, settle on the mucosa of the respiratory tract.
Smoke poisoning from meat or fish burned in a pan gives a resulting mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Often the victims are children whose parents forget about the pot left on the stove and leave the house, or lovers of the "green snake".
Symptoms of smoke poisoning
The main signs of smoke poisoning are:
- the emergence of general weakness;
- heaviness in the head;
- headache (in frontotemporal area);
- redness of the face;
- noise in ears;
- increased heart rate;
- pain in the muscles;
- possible vomiting and fainting.
With smoke poisoning, symptoms may appear after several hours, but the severity can grow very quickly, presenting a danger to life.
Irritant gases cause a burning character of pain in the throat and chest, persistent cough. Within a day there is a cyanotic skin tone, dyspnea develops with a subsequent pulmonary edema.
With a severe degree of poisoning, breathing is frequent and superficial, convulsions appear, respiratory and cardiovascular insufficiency develops. Maybe involuntary urination. Death comes from stopping breathing and heart.
In massive forest fires in nearby settlements, many people of different ages may be disturbed by malaise, poor overall health, and cardiovascular and respiratory system disorders.
The life of the victim often depends on the help given to him. What do you need to do with smoke poisoning? First you need to call an ambulance or go to a nearby medical institution. Prior to the arrival of specialists, it is necessary to start rendering first aid.
First aid for smoke poisoning includes the following activities.
- The victim should be taken out or taken out to fresh air, free from breath-making clothes - unfasten the collar and waistband.
- Hot hot strong tea.
- To accelerate the elimination of toxins from the body, give the sorbent: the most powerful of them is the sorbent of the new generation "Polysorb MP", but "Activated charcoal" is also suitable.
- With fainting, gently give a sniff the cotton wool with ammonia.
- Make sure the airway is free of obstructions, and if vomit is present, release the mouth cavity from them.
- When the unconscious state - the victim put (turning his head to one side), to prevent the tongue lingering.
- Check for pulsation in the carotid artery.
- In the absence of palpitations and breathing, conduct an indirect cardiac massage and do artificial respiration.
- To exclude hypothermia - if necessary, put warmers at the feet, while avoiding skin burns, taking into account the decrease in pain sensitivity.
The doctor will decide the further treatment after the examination. After hospitalization, the patient is provided with prolonged breathing with oxygen, which displaces carbon dioxide from the compound with hemoglobin. Within three hours, the hyperventilation regimen is established - the oxygen concentration in the inhaled air is about 80%, and then it is reduced to 50%. In especially severe cases, the treatment is carried out in a pressure chamber with increased oxygen pressure.
Symptomatic treatment is performed depending on the severity of the condition. If there is evidence, then used:
- heart means;
- vitamin therapy.
As a result, the following conclusions can be drawn: smoke can be poisoned in various situations: in a fire in a room or in a forest, from a fire when burning garbage or during cooking because of burning food in a saucepan. Particular danger is the smoke from the combustion of plastic. Symptoms of poisoning are weakness, redness of the face, dyspnea, increased heart rate, headache. When manifestations of poisoning should be given first aid, and in severe cases, you should seek medical help.