Phosphorus and its compounds are the right substances in the human body. This is one of the main components of proteins, enzymes in vital reactions that occur daily. Thanks to phosphorus, our bones and teeth have a strong structure, and the human body can make active movements. A nervous system without its connections cannot work productively.
Without a doubt, phosphorus is needed in every cell. But he possesses not only useful properties, some of his compounds, artificially created by man, are harmful. Is it possible to have an excess of phosphorus in the body, what kind of substances and in what quantity will cause poisoning with this element?
Phosphorus compounds around us
It will be a question of chemicals which in the industry and in life carry the name FOS (FOV). Organophosphate compounds are a group of complex substances that contain phosphoric acids.
Where are organophosphates used?
- In agriculture for the processing of orchards, vineyards, vegetables and grains.
- To combat animal parasites.
- In service with the army as chemical warfare agents (sarin, soman and V-gases).
- In medical practice (drops in ophthalmology, in surgery preparations for the normalization of the muscles of the gastrointestinal tract, in the treatment of pediculosis).
Everyone can encounter one of the phosphorus derivatives in their life without knowing it. Therefore, it is necessary to be fully armed if FOS is poisoned.
Organophosphate compounds are most often solid or liquid volatile substances, most of which have a specific kerosene-garlic odor. Well soluble in fats and poorly in water. The toxicity of aqueous solutions at a temperature of 35 ° C per day increases to 35 times.
Organophosphate compounds are part of many things that people face daily in their lives. They enter the body mainly through the respiratory tract, the digestive system or the skin. Organophosphate poisoning occurs when contaminated water is consumed, foodstuffs treated with such substances, when FOS comes in contact with the skin during the treatment of rooms, clothes and linen.
Once inside, organophosphorus compounds are rapidly absorbed in the oral cavity, then in the stomach and intestines. Almost instantly enter the blood. Organophosphate poisoning is dangerous with its consequences: about 50% of FOS is converted into more toxic compounds in the body, cyclical transformation is characteristic of the poison. That is why 8–10% of people who have only once encountered with FOS poisoning have relapses. In this case, repeated contact with any phosphorus compound was not observed. This condition is called chronic phosphorus intoxication.
Organophosphorus compounds primarily affect the nervous system. In the development of acute poisoning, it is common to distinguish three periods.
- Acute - the first three days.
- The period of complications is from the 4th to the 14th day.
- The period of remote consequences, which can last up to three years.
The acute period of phosphorus poisoning is characterized by the excitation of body systems. The central and peripheral nervous system is affected, which is expressed in the following symptoms.
- Blurred vision
- Excessive saliva secretion - hypersalivation, increased sweating.
- Bronchospasm, bradycardia or a decrease in heart rate.
- Intestinal peristalsis increases, spastic pains appear, and stool is later disturbed in the form of diarrhea.
- The symptoms of phosphorus poisoning include muscle weakness, muscle twitching of various groups.
- Paralysis of the respiratory muscles, respiratory failure.
- Signs of damage to the central nervous system: agitation, shortness of breath, the appearance of seizures, an abnormal heart rhythm, an increase with a subsequent decrease in pressure, an increase and a decrease in temperature.
- If a poisonous substance enters the body in high concentration, confusion, coma, paralysis of the respiratory center occurs.
In the second period of the development of poisoning, the symptoms somewhat subside, but other signs join them.
- Lack of reflexes.
- Cyanosis of the skin.
- Pressure reduction.
- Edema of the brain.
Additionally, in the second stage of phosphorus intoxication, pneumonia, toxic hepatitis, and kidney damage can join.
The third period - long-term effects, which affect the neuromuscular system, kidneys and liver.
Diagnosis of FOS poisoning
The diagnosis is based on symptoms of damage to the nervous system:
- visual impairment;
- violation of the bowel.
You need to carefully inspect the place where the victim was. The presence of a specific kerosene-garlic odor from unfamiliar substances may give rise to the idea of the presence of FOS in the room. In the subsequent biochemical blood test will help to finally make a diagnosis.
During acute poisoning, lightning and slow-flowing forms are released. Those affected with the fulminant convulsive syndrome develops within 30 minutes after contact with organophosphorous compounds.
Emergency care in organophosphate poisoning
First aid in case of poisoning with phosphorus compounds depends on the way the chemical agent enters the body.
- If FOS got through the mouth of the victim immediately washed the stomach with a probe, injected magnesium sulfate, activated carbon, liquid paraffin.
- In case of inhalation poisoning, a person should be immediately taken out of the room, the stomach should be flushed, a laxative and an antidote (antidote) should be administered.
- Affected skin should be washed with soap and water, 2% soda solution, treated with chloramine.
Treatment of FOS poisoning
If you suspect poisoning with phosphorus compounds, all people are subject to emergency hospitalization in the intensive care units of hospitals.
Antidotes for organophosphate poisoning are:
- Atropine Sulfate;
Prevention of FOS poisoning
To avoid infection, you need to follow safety rules.
- Work with phosphorus compounds only in closed clothes, so the substances do not fall on the skin.
- Prevention of FOS poisoning - Do not allow children to tanks containing this product, dispose of the container in time.
- In the case when the poison got on the clothes - it should be removed immediately, cut hair and nails cut off.
The specific signs of phosphorus poisoning are damage to the nervous system at all levels. Each organ can be affected by acute poisoning with FOS. The only correct decision that needs to be made in case of suspected poisoning is timely hospitalization in the hospital. This will not only save the life of a person, but also save him from chronic serious illnesses afterwards.