Mushrooms govorushki - poisoning their poisonous species
Even experienced mushroom pickers can not always distinguish edible mushrooms and inedible mushrooms. These are hat-shaped mushrooms from the family of rowans. Family includes and harmless to the body fungi - govorushka anise, fragrant, goblet; mushrooms, which are relatively edible - smoky smoky, mace; and poisonous.
All of them are similar, there are insignificant differences in color, smell. And the smell and taste of edible mushrooms is not always pleasant. But still mushroom pickers pick them up, and often there are poisonings govorushkami. If you do not provide first aid on time, a fatal outcome is possible.
Description of mushrooms
Govorushki small hat mushrooms, which are more often found where there is a grass cover: in meadows, in parks, on the edge of the forest. Caps 2-6 cm in diameter, in young fungi usually convex, in older ones they become concave. The fungus is lamellar, whitish plates darken when pressed. The pedicle is cylindrical, narrowing downward, only at the clavate govorushki it is widened below.
Govorushki are found in the northern hemisphere from July to November. The family of ryadovkov includes more than 2500 species of mushrooms, and the genus of govorushki is one of the most common in it. Mushroom to the same family. The meadow fur is very similar to a wax-like goat, and often grows near it. It is their similarity that often causes poisoning. Even one little talker, caught in a basket with honey-mushrooms, can cause poisoning.
To determine whether a goat is an edible fungus or not is difficult, since there are only slight differences in color and smell. And mealy, pleasant smell more often at poisonous govorushk: voskovidnoj and whitish. The color changes with the growth of the fungus. Young govorushki distinguish more difficult - they are all grayish or whitish. Therefore, beginner mushroom pickers should not collect these mushrooms, especially as the taste of edible goats is said to be an amateur.
To the poisonous are the wax-like goat and the goose whitish. When collecting mushrooms, they can be confused with edible govorushkami, meadow honey mushrooms and a pogoshennikom, which differs pinkish plates and spores, as well as the absence of a hat, concentric circles, like golovrushek.
Poisonous substance muscarine
Poisonous govorushki contain vegetable poison muscarine, it is also produced in well-known fly agarics. Muscarine is a substance similar to acetylcholine. Upon ingestion, it acts on muscarinic M-receptors, causing their excitation. These receptors are normally activated by acetylcholine and transmit nerve impulses from the brain to the smooth muscles. And smooth muscles in the body are found in many internal organs, for example, intestines, heart and glands.
Govorushka waxy and whitish, cause poisoning, similar to the action of acetylcholine, multiply multiplied.
Poisoning with mushrooms is quite common. Given that govorushku can be confused with edible mushrooms, you need to know the signs and symptoms of poisoning golovoroshko whitish and waxy. Poisoning them is very similar to poisoning by fly agarics. But there is evidence that fly agarics are used by the peoples of the far north for certain rituals, and they are known as hallucinogens. Unlike fly agarics in govorushke there is no toxic substance that causes hallucinations of muscazone, but muscarin contains much more.
Symptoms of poisoning
When eating govorushki voskovatoy or whitish symptoms of poisoning appear after 15-30 minutes, less often later. The patient complains:
- for nausea;
- stomach ache;
- labored breathing;
- impaired vision.
Objectively you can see the symptoms of poisoning:
- redness of the face;
- increased salivation;
- an intestinal disorder (diarrhea);
- increased sweating;
- lowering blood pressure;
One of the important symptoms of poisoning with whitish whitish, waxy or fly agar is a spasm of accommodation or a narrow pupil. This is what causes visual impairment in the patient, the so-called false myopia.
Symptoms of nervous system damage are also observed, but these are not hallucinations, but confusion, the patient becomes inadequate, does not understand where he is. Often there is fear or attacks of aggression, which can dramatically change euphoria.
The side effects of muscarin are a shiver, a chill. It may be a violation of urination in the form of frequent urination. All these symptoms are associated with exposure to smooth muscle M-receptors.
Often, the symptoms of poisoning can go away on their own, their severity decreases after 2-3 hours after poisoning. If the amount of muscarin added to the blood is large, a fatal outcome is possible.
Death occurs due to a violation of breathing. This is caused by a spasm of smooth muscles of the bronchi and an increase in the secretion of bronchial glands. Spasm of bronchioles and increased formation of viscous mucus complicates breathing. In the lungs can be heard wheezing, breathing wheezing. The patient has pronounced dyspnea, cyanoticity (blue) of the skin.
Violation of breathing causes hypoxia (a decrease in oxygen in the blood), then there is hypercapnia (an increase in the content of carbon dioxide in the blood). If you do not provide timely assistance, death occurs.
First aid for poisoning
At the first symptoms of poisoning govorushkoy need to call an ambulance. The antidote of muscarin is atropine. If possible, they inject atropine to prevent the development of poisoning. When there is no such possibility, then before the arrival of the ambulant the victim must be packed.
Do not give the patient no antiemetic drugs or drugs for diarrhea - the body must be cleansed of poison. During poisoning, vomiting occurs spontaneously, this is the symptom. You can provoke vomiting yourself by irritating the root of the tongue with your fingers, but you can not drink water for this purpose, since it will enhance the absorption of the poison. It is better to give the patient to take activated charcoal or any other sorbent.
If the patient has lost consciousness, it is necessary to lay him on his side to prevent vomiting in the respiratory tract. When cramping, make sure that the patient does not hit the furniture or surrounding objects. Give the patient water, do not need an enema, as this can increase the absorption of muscarin into the blood and worsen the patient's condition.
When breathing is stopped, resuscitation is carried out - artificial respiration and indirect heart massage .
Treatment of poisoning
The patient must be taken to the hospital, usually in the intensive care unit. Still on the way to the hospital, the patient is administered atropine (enough 0.1 gram). Atropine is a cholinoblocker that removes irritation of M-receptors. Then they carry out measures aimed at removing muscarin from the body, supporting the activity of the heart and breathing.
To remove muscarin, rinse the stomach and prescribe a castor oil or enema. If the patient's mind is confused, then the infusion therapy is performed, this is an intravenous injection of medicinal solutions in large volumes. Then they designate "Furosemide" (also known as "Lasix"), so that excess water leaves the urine and removes the remnants of muscarin in the blood. This method of treatment is called forced diuresis.
In case of violations of cardiac activity, camphor and caffeine are prescribed, and in case of dyspnea, a decrease in the volume of breathing, the patient is given oxygen to breathe. In severe cases, intubation of the lungs may be necessary.
Severe poisoning can occur in children, or if it occurs against a background of alcoholic intoxication. Complications of golovoroy poisoning is:
- impaired breathing;
- disturbance of cardiac activity, falling of arterial pressure;
- Aspiration of vomit, which increases spasm of the bronchi, and in the future can lead to inflammation of the lungs.
The prognosis, when poisoned by a govorushka waxy or pale, if the help is provided in a timely manner, is favorable. The patient's condition after the removal of muscarin from the blood quickly improves and for 2-3 days he can be discharged home.
Prevention of Poisoning Poison Poisoning
To avoid or not complicate poisoning by a golovorushka:
- You can not collect unfamiliar or unfamiliar mushrooms;
- check collected mushrooms;
- Do not buy homemade canned mushrooms from strangers;
- Do not give mushrooms to children, the more they are quite heavy food for them;
- do not drink alcohol with mushrooms.
Poisoning govorushkoy waxy or paler is carried much harder than poisoning fly agaric. Despite the fact that this type of poisoning rarely leads to death, the likelihood of such a development of the disease is still there, so for the first symptoms you need to call an ambulance.