Govorushka mushrooms - poisoning their poisonous species
Even experienced mushroom pickers cannot always discern edible and inedible goat mushrooms. These are cap mushrooms from the ryadov family. The family includes mushrooms that are harmless to the body - anisic, fragrant, goblet-shaped govorushka; mushrooms, which are relatively edible - govorushka smoky, clavonogaya; and poisonous.
All of them are similar, there are minor differences in color, smell. And the smell and taste of edible mushrooms is not always pleasant. But still, mushroom pickers pick them up, and poisoning is often found with gossipers. If time does not provide first aid, death is possible.
Description of govorushka mushrooms
Govorushki small hat mushrooms, which are more common where there is grass cover: in the meadows, in parks, on the edges of the forest. Hats 2–6 cm in diameter, in young mushrooms usually bulging, in old ones becoming concave. Plate mushroom, whitish plates with pressure darken. The leg is cylindrical, narrows down, only at the club-shaped govorushki it is expanded below.
Govorushki are found in the northern hemisphere from July to November. The family of ryadovkovy includes more than 2500 species of mushrooms, and the genus govorushek one of the most common in it. Mushrooms belong to the same family. Meadow meadow is very similar to a waxy gorat, often grows alongside it. It is their similarity that often causes poisoning. Even one govorushka, trapped in a basket with honey agarics, can cause poisoning.
Determining whether or not an edible mushroom is difficult is because there are only slight differences in color and smell. And the mealy, pleasant smell is more often in poisonous govorushek: wax-like and whitish. The color changes with the growth of the fungus. Young talkers are harder to distinguish - they are all grayish or whitish. Therefore, novice mushroom pickers should not collect these mushrooms, especially since the taste of edible govorushek, as they say, is an amateur.
The poisonous are waxy govorushka and whitish govosushka. When picking mushrooms, they can be confused with edible govorushkas, meadow mushrooms and a gardener, which is distinguished by pinkish plates and spores, as well as the absence of concentric circles on the cap, like those of gossipers.
Poisonous govorushki contain plant poison muscarin, it is also produced in well-known mushroom fly agarics. Muscarin is a substance similar to acetylcholine. When ingested, it acts on muscarinic M-receptors, causing them to be excited. These receptors are normally activated by acetylcholine and transmit nerve impulses from the brain to the smooth muscles. And smooth muscles in the body are found in many internal organs, such as the intestines, the heart, and the glands.
Govorushka wax and whitish, cause poisoning, similar to the action of acetylcholine, multiplied many times.
Mushroom poisoning is quite common. Considering that a talker can be confused with edible mushrooms, it is necessary to know the signs and symptoms of poisoning with a whitish and waxish talker. Poisoning by them is very similar to poisoning by amanita. But there is evidence that amanitas are used by the peoples of the far north for certain rituals, and they are known as hallucinogens. Unlike the fly agaric, there is no toxic substance in the govorushka that causes hallucinations of muskone, but muscarin contains much more.
Symptoms of poisoning
When eating gravy or whitish govorushki, symptoms of poisoning appear after 15–30 minutes, less often later. The patient complains:
- for nausea;
- stomach ache;
- labored breathing;
- visual impairment.
Objectively, you can notice the symptoms of poisoning:
- redness of the face;
- increased salivation;
- intestinal upset (diarrhea);
- increased sweating;
- lower blood pressure;
One of the most important symptoms of poisoning by using a whitish, wax-like or fly agaric poisoning is accommodation spasm or a narrow pupil. This is what causes visual impairment in the patient, the so-called false myopia.
Symptoms of damage to the nervous system are also observed, but these are not hallucinations, but confusion, the patient becomes inadequate, does not understand where he is. Often there is fear or bouts of aggression, which can sharply be replaced by euphoria.
The side effects of muscarin are trembling, chills. Perhaps a violation of urination in the form of frequent urination. All of these symptoms are associated with effects on smooth muscle M-receptors.
Often the symptoms of poisoning can go away on their own, their severity decreases after 2-3 hours after poisoning. If the amount of muscarin entering the blood is large, death is possible.
Death occurs due to respiratory failure. This is caused by a spasm of the smooth muscles of the bronchi and an increase in the secretion of the bronchial glands. Spasm of bronchioles and increased formation of viscous mucus makes breathing difficult. In the lungs, wheezing and wheezing are heard. The patient has a pronounced shortness of breath, cyanotic (blue) skin.
Respiratory distress causes hypoxia (decrease in oxygen in the blood), then hypercapnia appears (an increase in the carbon dioxide content in the blood). If you do not provide timely assistance, death occurs.
First aid for poisoning
At the first symptoms of poisoning govorushkoy need to call an ambulance. The muskarine antidote is atropine. If possible, atropine is given to prevent the development of poisoning. When this is not possible, then before the arrival of the ambulance the victim must be laid.
You can not give the patient any antiemetic drugs or drugs for diarrhea - the body must be cleansed of poison. During poisoning, vomiting occurs spontaneously, this is a symptom. You can provoke vomiting yourself by irritating the root of the tongue with your fingers, but you cannot drink water for this purpose, as it will increase the absorption of the poison. It is better to let the patient take activated carbon or any other sorbent.
If the patient has lost consciousness, you need to lay it on its side to prevent vomit from entering the respiratory tract. With convulsions, make sure that the patient does not hit the furniture or surrounding objects. Giving the patient water, do not need an enema, as this can increase the absorption of muscarin into the blood and worsen the patient's condition.
When respiratory arrest occurs, resuscitation measures are performed - artificial respiration and indirect heart massage .
The patient must be taken to the hospital, usually to the intensive care unit. Even on the way to the hospital, atropine is administered to the patient (0.1 gram is sufficient). Atropine is a holinoblocker that relieves M-receptor irritation. Then carry out activities aimed at removing muscarin from the body, supporting the activity of the heart and respiration.
To remove muscarin do gastric lavage and prescribe castor oil or enema. If the patient’s mind is confused, then infusion therapy is performed, this is intravenous administration of medicinal solutions in large volumes. Then, “Furosemide” (aka “Lasix”) is prescribed, so that the excess water goes out with urine and removes muscarine residues in the blood. This method of treatment is called forced diuresis.
In case of disturbances in cardiac activity, camphor and caffeine are prescribed, and in case of dyspnea and a decrease in the volume of breathing, the patient is allowed to breathe oxygen. In severe cases, lung intubation may be necessary.
Severe poisoning can be observed in children, or if it occurs against the background of alcohol intoxication. Complications of poisoning with govorushkoy is:
- respiratory failure;
- violation of cardiac activity, a drop in blood pressure;
- aspiration of vomitus, which increases the bronchospasm, and may later lead to inflammation of the lungs.
The prognosis, when poisoning with govosushkoy waxed or pale, if the assistance provided in a timely manner, favorable. The condition of the patient after removal of muscarin from the blood quickly improves and for 2-3 days he can be discharged home.
Prevention of poisoning poisonous talk
To avoid or not complicate the poisoning by talking:
- you can not collect unfamiliar or unfamiliar to you mushrooms;
- check the collected mushrooms;
- not to buy homemade canned mushrooms from strangers;
- not to give mushrooms to children, the more they are quite heavy food for them;
- Do not drink alcohol with mushrooms.
Poisoning with govorushkoy waxy or pale is much more difficult than poisoning with a fly agaric. Despite the fact that this type of poisoning rarely leads to death, the likelihood of such a development of the disease is still there, so you should call an ambulance for the first symptoms.