Not all people who decide to pick mushrooms are well-versed in their varieties. This leads to the accidental use of poisonous fungi. The resulting poisoning is one of the most severe food intoxications that can lead to death.
Let's find out in this article which types of fungi are poisonous, how they are poisoned, how to give first aid to an injured person, and also find out about preventive measures that prevent intoxication.
Types of poisonous mushrooms
ICD-10 mushroom poisoning has code T62.0.
Only 400 species of the existing more than 3 thousand species of cap mushrooms are edible. The rest are dangerous. Several species of them are constantly poisonous, others become poisonous under certain conditions: raw consumption, sharing with alcohol, and so on.
The worst enemies of the people are the pale toadstool and its “relatives” - spring and white. They are deadly poisonous: even a quarter of the cap can cause the death of an adult. The poison of the toadstool (amanitin) is not destroyed either by temperature or by drying.
Among the lepiots that can be confused with umbrella mushrooms are deadly poisonous species. All 100 species of fibrils are poisonous. Even more than in the mushroom, muscarine poison contains a whitish govorushka.
The web is teddy and beautiful - deadly poisonous, dangerous also by the fact that intoxication manifestations appear 2-3 weeks after their use.
The most serious poisoning, in addition to pale toadstool and amanita, is caused by the following mushrooms:
- ground floor;
- false mushrooms;
- stinky mushroom.
In case of improper processing of milk seeds, lines, morels, wind waves - intoxication may also occur.
Symptoms of mushroom poisoning
Signs of mushroom poisoning after how long do they occur? On average, symptoms appear 1–2 hours after ingestion. This period of well-being, depending on the type of mushrooms eaten, their type of processing, alcohol consumption, body weight, age, dose of the received toxin, can be reduced to 30 minutes or lengthen to 6–7 hours (pale toadstool) or even 2–3 weeks (web and lepiota).
The symptoms of mushroom poisoning are similar to the signs of other food intoxications: all of them are characterized by:
- stomach ache.
But there are differences in the clinic of poisoning depending on the type and dose of poisonous mushrooms. We analyze the most common poisoning.
- Pale toadstool will cause pain in the muscles, abdomen, nausea, vomiting, and abundant liquid cholera-like (often bloody) stools up to 25 times a day. Emetic masses resemble coffee grounds. Convulsions, respiratory and cardiovascular failure, jaundice, renal failure, coma appear quickly.
- Poisoning with red toadstools and chattering habits develops quickly - after 0.5–2 hours. In addition to signs common to all poisonings, additional signs appear: increased salivation, lacrimation, increased sweating, constriction of the pupil, severe bronchial spasm and shortness of breath, slowing of heartbeats and pressure reduction, convulsions, impaired consciousness (hallucinations, delirium, coma).
For poisoning with a panther fly agaric, the opposite is characteristic: dry mucous membranes and skin, increased heart rate, and pupil dilation.
- Morels and lines, in addition to common symptoms, cause convulsions, destruction of red blood cells (hemolysis), toxic liver damage (increase in size, jaundice), enlargement of the spleen, kidney damage and loss of consciousness.
The children's body is more sensitive to the action of toxins, so the symptoms of mushroom poisoning in children appear more quickly, the poisoning is more severe.
Mushrooms poisoning is particularly dangerous during pregnancy , as poisons can penetrate the placenta and have an effect on the baby. There is a threat of miscarriage. Headaches, lack of appetite, nausea, dizziness, vomiting and diarrhea. Loss of fluid with stools and vomiting can lead to dehydration, loss of minerals and vitamins, so necessary for mother and fetus. Possible increased heart rate, decreased pressure, fainting.
First aid for mushroom poisoning
When the first signs of poisoning appear, call an ambulance without delay. The remains of the product should be postponed for further research, which will help determine the type of poison and prescribe the correct treatment. Before arrival of the doctor it is necessary to begin rendering assistance to the victim.
First aid for mushroom poisoning consists of the following measures.
- Wash the stomach, using at least 1.5 liters of water. It is possible to provoke vomiting by pressing a spoon on the root of the tongue. Pregnant women should not induce vomiting.
- In the absence of diarrhea, give 1 tablespoon of vaseline or castor oil.
- Write to take any of the sorbents ("Activated carbon", "Polysorb MP" and others).
- Provide abundant drinking: mineral (without gas) water, black strong tea.
- The victim is put to bed. At the feet put a warm heating pad.
In case of poisoning with mushrooms, the treatment is carried out in the hospital - in the toxicology department.
- The stomach is washed through the probe.
- Assign: saline laxative, intravenous administration of solutions and forced diuresis (urination).
- On the first day hemosorption is carried out - removal of toxins from the blood by passing it through sorbents.
Prescribed treatment of cardiovascular and renal failure.
When poisoning with a mushroom red and govorushkami introduced an antidote - "Atropine" in individually selected doses.
When mushroom poisoning is strictly prohibited: drink alcohol, take painkillers, antiemetics and drugs for diarrhea.
Prevention of mushroom poisoning
How not to poison mushrooms? This requires strict adherence to certain rules.
- It should take only well-known mushrooms. At the slightest doubt, the fungus should be thrown away, not allowing it to be shared with the already collected party.
You can not collect old, wormy mushrooms.
- Do not taste them raw.
- Carefully inspect each mushroom, paying attention to the color of the cap, sponge, the presence and color of the plates, on the leg and the presence of a ring on it.
- You need to collect in the basket, not in the package.
- You can not collect from roads and businesses in the radiation zone.
- Do not store for a long time, cook immediately.
- Any mushrooms before cooking must be boiled and pour the broth.
- Do not cook at home mushroom canned food.
- In the forest, do not leave children unattended.
Effects of mushroom poisoning
The consequences of poisoning with mushrooms, especially without treatment, are very serious.
- In case of poisoning with a foot toadstool, death occurs in 40–90% of cases.
- In case of poisoning with a mushroom and govorushkami with late assistance - mortality up to 50%.
- In severe poisoning, the liver and kidneys are destroyed and function, which requires the transplantation of these organs or leads to death.
The main cause of mushroom poisoning is ignorance of their distinctive features, neglect of the rules of prevention and carelessness. Fungal poisons, affecting all organ systems, can lead to death in 2-3 days.
The inability to provide 1st aid in case of poisoning, a delay of only 1-2 days with a visit to the doctor is often the cause of death of the victim.
The body alone is not able to neutralize fungal poisons. Only timely, full-fledged treatment gives a chance to save the patient.