Poisoning with mushrooms
Not all people who decided to harvest mushrooms are well-versed in their species. This leads to the occasional use of poisonous fungi. The poisoning that follows is one of the most severe food intoxications, which can lead to death.
Let's find out in this article what kinds of fungi are poisonous, how poisoning manifests them, what kind of first aid to the injured person, and also learn about preventive measures to prevent intoxication.
Types of poisonous mushrooms
Poisoning by fungi according to ICD-10 has the code T62.0.
Only 400 species from the existing more than 3 thousand varieties of mushrooms are edible. The rest are dangerous. Several types of them are constantly poisonous, others become poisonous under certain conditions: eating in raw form, sharing with alcohol and so on.
The worst enemies of people - pale toadstool and its "relatives" - spring and white. They are deadly poisonous: even a quarter of the cap can cause the death of an adult. The venom of pale toadstool (amanitine) does not break down under the influence of temperature, nor during drying.
Among the Lepiotites, which can be confused with umbrella mushrooms, there are deadly poisonous varieties. All 100 varieties of fiber are poisonous. Even more than in the fly agaric, the muscarin poison contains a whitish whorl.
Spider web is plush and beautiful - deadly poisonous, dangerous also because manifestations of intoxication appear 2-3 weeks after their use.
The most severe poisonings, except pale toadstool and mushroom, cause the following mushrooms:
- ground floor;
- false firearms;
- smelly mushroom.
When improper treatment of grouses, stitches, morels, freckles - can also occur intoxication.
Symptoms of poisoning with mushrooms
Signs of poisoning with mushrooms through how much do they occur? On average, symptoms appear 1-2 hours after ingestion. This period of well-being, depending on the type of mushrooms eaten, the type of their processing, the use of alcohol, body weight, age, the dose of the toxin can be reduced to 30 minutes or extend to 6-7 hours (pale toadstool) or even up to 2-3 weeks (spiderweb and a lepiot).
Symptoms of poisoning with fungi are similar to those of other food intoxications: all of them are characterized by:
- stomach ache.
But there are differences in the poisoning clinic depending on the type and dose of poisonous fungi. We will analyze the most common poisonings.
- Pale toadstool will cause pain in the muscles, abdomen, nausea, vomiting, abundant liquid cholera-like (often bloody) stool up to 25 times a day. Vomit reminiscent of coffee grounds. Cramps, respiratory and cardiovascular failure, jaundice, kidney failure, coma quickly appear.
- Poisoning red fly agarics and govorushkami develops rapidly - after 0.5-2 hours. In addition to common signs of all poisoning, additional symptoms also appear: increased salivation, lacrimation, increased sweating, narrowing of the pupil, pronounced bronchial spasms and shortness of breath, slowing of the heart rate and lowering of pressure, convulsions, impaired consciousness (hallucinations, delirium, coma).
To poison panther fly agaric, on the contrary: dryness of mucous membranes and skin, increased pulse, dilated pupil.
- Morphes and lines, in addition to general symptoms, cause convulsions, the destruction of red blood cells in the blood (hemolysis), toxic damage to the liver (increase in size, icteric), spleen enlargement, kidney damage and loss of consciousness.
Children's body is more sensitive to toxins, so the symptoms of poisoning with fungi in children appear faster, poisoning is more severe.
A special risk of poisoning with mushrooms is during pregnancy , since poisons can penetrate the placenta and have an effect on the baby. There is a threat of miscarriage. The woman is concerned about headaches, lack of appetite, nausea, dizziness, vomiting and diarrhea. Loss of fluid with stools and vomiting can lead to dehydration, loss of minerals and vitamins, so necessary for mom and fetus. There may be an increase in heart rate, a decrease in pressure, an unconscious condition.
First aid for poisoning with mushrooms
When the first signs of poisoning appear, you should call an ambulance without delay. Remains of the product should be postponed for later investigation, which will help determine the type of poison and prescribe the right treatment. Before the arrival of a doctor, it is necessary to start rendering assistance to the victim.
First aid for poisoning with fungi consists of the following activities.
- Rinse the stomach using at least 1.5 liters of water. You can provoke vomiting by pressing the spoon on the root of the tongue. Do not induce vomiting in pregnancy.
- In the absence of diarrhea, give 1 tablespoon of Vaseline or castor oil.
- Give to take any of the sorbents ("Activated Carbon", "Polysorb MP" and others).
- Provide abundant drink: mineral (without gas) water, black strong tea.
- He put him in bed. Put a warm water bottle to your feet.
Treatment in hospital
When poisoning with mushrooms, the treatment is carried out in a hospital - in the toxicology department.
- The stomach is washed through a probe.
- Assign: salt laxative, intravenous solutions and forced diuresis (urination).
- In the first day, hemosorption is carried out - removing toxins from the blood by passing it through sorbents.
Prescribe treatment for cardiovascular and renal failure.
When you poison with fly agaric red and govorushkami introduced antidote - "Atropine" in individually selected doses.
When mushroom poisoning is strictly prohibited: to drink alcohol, take painkillers, antiemetics and anti-diarrhea drugs.
Prevention of poisoning with mushrooms
How not to poison the mushrooms? This requires strict adherence to certain rules.
- Only known fungi should be taken. At the slightest doubt, the fungus must be thrown out, not allowing its joint stay with the already assembled party.
You can not collect old, wormy mushrooms.
- Do not taste them raw.
- Carefully inspect each mushroom, paying attention to the color of the cap, the sponge, the presence and color of the plates, on the stem and the presence of a ring on it.
- Collect it in the basket, not in the package.
- You can not collect near roads and enterprises, in the radiation zone.
- Do not store for a long time, cook immediately.
- Any mushrooms must be boiled before cooking and pour out the broth.
- Do not cook mushroom canned food at home.
- In the forest, do not leave children unattended.
Consequences of poisoning with mushrooms
The consequences of poisoning with mushrooms, especially without treatment, are very serious.
- When poisoning pale toadstool, death occurs in 40-90% of cases.
- At a poisoning by a fly agaric and govorushkami at the belated help - death rate to 50%.
- In severe poisoning, the liver and kidneys are destroyed and cease to function, which requires the transplantation of these organs or leads to death.
The main cause of fungal poisoning is ignorance of their distinctive features, neglect of prevention rules and carelessness. Mushroom poisons, affecting all systems of organs, can lead to death in 2-3 days.
Inability to provide first aid for poisoning, delay only for 1-2 days with a visit to a doctor - often cause the death of the victim.
The body itself is not able to neutralize the fungal poisons. Only timely full-fledged treatment gives a chance to save the patient.