Iodine is a vital element in the human body. With its deficiency there are a variety of metabolic disorders.
And what threatens the excess of this substance? Is it possible to poison with iodine and how serious the consequences will be?
Is it possible to poison with iodine
Crystalline iodine is a rather aggressive element. Even on short-term skin contact, it causes burns. For medical purposes, use various drugs based on iodine.
- Disinfectants - alcohol solution of 5 and 10% concentration, Iodinol, Iodoform. They are used externally.
- Dosage forms taken orally - sodium and potassium iodide, Yatren, Enteroseptol, Yodonat.
- Diagnostic drugs (iodine) as a contrast agent.
Any of these drugs can be poisoned if you violate the instructions for use:
- to use inside external means;
- exceed the dose of medication;
- take them without the supervision of the attending physician.
Most often acute poisoning occurs in the case of inadvertent ingestion of iodine preparations orally in large quantities (for example, by children). Chronic poisoning is possible in the case of an incorrectly calculated regimen of taking the medicine or when working in a factory that uses iodine.
What will happen if I drink iodine in the form of a solution? The consequences will depend on the amount of the pure element received by the body. The lethal dose in terms of crystalline iodine is 2 grams for an adult. The negative impact is determined primarily by burns of the mucous membrane of the digestive tract.
When inhaled, iodine vapor is also poisonous and causes irritation and burns to the respiratory tract. With extensive accumulations on the skin, the element can be absorbed into the blood.
What will happen if I drink iodine with water? Irritation in this case will depend on the concentration of the solution. In small doses, this cocktail does not pose a threat to health.
In high concentrations, iodine has a destructive effect on the protein structures of the cells of the body. A chemical burn of mucous membranes, pain, swelling. Perhaps the development of allergic reactions and anaphylactic shock. In case of edema of the larynx, bronchi and lungs, suffocation occurs. Iodine is well absorbed from the digestive tract into the blood, after which comes a general poisoning with signs of damage to the central nervous system, liver, cardiovascular system and kidneys.
Symptoms of iodine poisoning
In medicine, iodine poisoning is called "iodism." There are acute and chronic course of the disease.
In case of acute iodine poisoning, the symptoms are caused by a burn of mucous membranes and damage to the respiratory, cardiovascular and nervous systems.
- Inhalation develops a runny nose, cough, lacrimation, salivation, a metallic taste appears in the mouth.
- When entering the stomach, pain and burning in the mouth, esophagus, stomach occur.
- Thirst develops.
- From the mouth you can catch the smell of iodine.
- The tongue and mucous membranes of the mouth are colored brown.
- Vomiting occurs, food masses are colored dark yellow or blue (if there is starchy food in the stomach) color. Possible blood impurities.
- Diarrhea, sometimes with blood.
In severe cases develops:
- swelling of the nose, larynx, shortness of breath;
- decrease in blood pressure: pallor, shortness of breath, loss of consciousness;
- delirium, hallucinations, convulsions, coma;
- violation of urination - urine is small, in it is blood and mucus.
Perhaps the development of an allergic reaction and anaphylactic shock. The shock can also occur due to severe internal pain from burns of the mucous membrane of the digestive tract.
Chronic poisoning can be obtained at work or with long-term use of iodine-containing drugs. The useful daily dose of pure iodine does not exceed 500 mcg, safe - no more than 1000 mcg daily.
Symptoms in chronic poisoning erased. As a rule, a dysfunction of the thyroid gland develops, a decrease in immunity, possibly the occurrence of other diseases.
- Iododerma - confluent acne, urticaria, dermatitis.
- Eye lesions - conjunctivitis, blepharitis, other inflammatory processes.
Iodine poisoning in children
Poisoning, possibly by accidentally taking drugs based on iodine. The child will experience staining of the oral mucosa, tongue, the smell of iodine from the mouth, the characteristic color of vomitus.
If the child drank iodine in the form of an undiluted alcohol solution or swallowed a significant amount (a few milliliters) of other iodine-containing drugs, then perhaps the development of all signs of poisoning, up to suffocation. Therefore, you should immediately call the emergency medical service and provide first aid.
First aid for children with iodine poisoning
What to do if the child drank iodine? You should immediately put him to bed. When cramps fix limbs, small can be swaddled. Retain position on the back, head turned to the side so that the baby does not suffocate. If vomiting is present, clean the mouth and nose with a piece of cloth.
If the child is conscious, before the ambulance brigade arrives, they perform the following actions.
What to do when iodine poisoning:
- taking warm water 1 cup 3-4 times, after each cause vomiting;
- in the last reception to give 5 tablets of activated carbon;
- dilute starch or flour in water - starch is a natural antidote for iodine;
- in case of contact with eyes or mouth, wash with warm water or wipe with a damp swab;
- iodine is washed from skin with 2% soda solution.
You can not artificially induce vomiting with severe pain in the esophagus, children up to three years. Babies need to provide plenty of drink, give 3 tablets of coal, a solution of starch and you should expect the arrival of a doctor.
An antidote for iodine is sodium thiosulfate. It is given to drink in the form of a 5% solution in an amount of 1–2 cups and rinsing the mouth.
- Inside take enveloping means: starch kissel, eggs, milk, butter.
- Apply forced diuresis.
- Eliminate dehydration by injecting intravenous fluids.
- Sodium thiosulfate is administered intravenously.
- Eyes washed with water, instilled with a 2% solution of Dicain.
- For severe pain, anesthetic is prescribed.
- Apply means that stimulate heart activity; they remove bronchospasm and give antitussive drugs. In case of severe damage to the lungs, prolonged inhalation with oxygen is prescribed.
In severe cases, hemodialysis may be necessary.
Consequences of iodine poisoning
With timely medical care in case of iodine poisoning, the consequences for the body will be minimal. They are mainly associated with its effect on the mucous membranes of the digestive tract and toxic damage to the liver and kidneys.
On the recommendation of the doctor for some time you will need to follow a sparing diet. In chronic poisoning, it is necessary to conduct studies on the content of iodine in the body and check the function of the thyroid gland. At the termination of receipt of an element in an organism it is removed quickly enough.
If you are poisoned by iodine, take first aid measures; in parallel, you should contact the ambulance. When providing qualified assistance, the disease is successfully treated, and the consequences are minimal. In chronic cases, it is necessary to undergo a medical examination for the purpose of optimal treatment.