Poisoning with iodine
Iodine is a vital element in the human body. With its lack, there are various metabolic disorders.
And than the excess of this substance threatens? Is it possible to poison with iodine and how serious will the consequences be?
Can I poison myself with iodine?
Crystalline iodine is a rather aggressive element. Even with short-term contact with the skin, it causes burns. For medical purposes, various drugs are used based on iodine.
- Disinfectants - alcohol solution of 5 and 10% concentration, Iodinol, Iodoform. They are used externally.
- Medicinal forms used inside - sodium and potassium iodide, Yatren, Enteroseptol, Iodonate.
- Diagnostic preparations (Iodogenost) as a contrast agent.
Any of these drugs can be poisoned if you violate the instructions for use:
- use inside means;
- exceed the dose of the medicine;
- take them without the supervision of the attending physician.
Most often acute poisoning occurs in the case of unintentional intake of iodine preparations in large quantities (for example, children). Chronic poisoning is possible in case of an incorrectly calculated scheme of taking medication or when working in a factory where iodine is used.
What happens if I drink iodine in the form of a solution? The consequences will depend on the amount of pure element received by the body. The lethal dose in terms of crystalline iodine is 2 grams for an adult. The negative impact is determined primarily by burns of the mucosa of the digestive tract.
When inhaled, iodine vapor is also poisonous and causes irritation and burns of the respiratory tract. With extensive accumulations on the skin, the element can be absorbed into the blood.
What happens if I drink iodine with water? The irritant effect in this case will depend on the concentration of the solution. In small doses of health hazards such a cocktail does not represent.
In high concentrations, iodine exerts a destructive effect on the protein structures of the body cells. There is a chemical burn of the mucous membranes, pain, swelling. Perhaps the development of allergic reactions and anaphylactic shock. In the case of edema of the larynx, bronchi and lungs suffocation occurs. Iodine is well absorbed from the digestive tract into the bloodstream, after which general poisoning begins with signs of damage to the central nervous system, liver, cardiovascular system and kidneys.
Symptoms of iodine poisoning
In medicine, iodine poisoning is called "iodism". There are acute and chronic course of the disease.
In acute iodine poisoning, symptoms are caused by burns of the mucous membranes and by damage to the respiratory, cardiovascular and nervous systems.
- When inhaled, a runny nose develops, coughing, lacrimation, salivation, a metallic taste appears in the mouth.
- When entering the stomach, pain and burning in the mouth, esophagus, stomach arise.
- Thirst develops.
- From the mouth you can catch the smell of iodine.
- The tongue and mucous membranes of the oral cavity are dyed brown.
- There is vomiting, the food masses are colored in dark yellow or blue (if there is starchy food in the stomach) color. Possible admixtures of blood.
- Diarrhea, sometimes with blood.
In severe cases:
- edema of the nose, larynx, shortness of breath;
- decrease in blood pressure: pallor, dyspnea, loss of consciousness;
- delirium, hallucinations, convulsions, coma;
- violation of urination - there is little urine, it has blood and mucus.
Perhaps the development of an allergic reaction and anaphylactic shock. Shock condition can also occur due to strong internal pain from burns of the mucosa of the digestive tract.
Chronic poisoning can be obtained at the workplace or with long-term intake of iodine-containing drugs. The useful daily dose of pure iodine does not exceed 500 mcg, the safe dose does not exceed 1000 mcg daily.
Symptoms of chronic poisoning are erased. As a rule, there is a violation of thyroid function, a decrease in immunity, possibly the occurrence of other diseases.
- Iododerma - fusing acne, hives, dermatitis.
- Eye disorders - conjunctivitis, blepharitis, other inflammatory processes.
Iodine poisoning in children
Poisoning, perhaps, with the occasional use of iodine-based drugs. The child will be observed staining the oral mucosa, the tongue, the smell of iodine from the mouth, the characteristic color of vomit.
If the child drank iodine in the form of undiluted alcohol solution or swallowed a significant amount (several milliliters) of other iodine-containing drugs, then, possibly, the development of all signs of poisoning, including choking. Therefore, immediately call the emergency medical service and provide first aid.
First aid for children with iodine poisoning
What if the child drank iodine? Immediately put him to bed. With cramps fix limbs, small can be swaddled. Keep the position on the back, the head turns sideways so that the baby does not suffocate. If there is vomiting - clean the mouth and nose with a piece of tissue.
If the child is conscious, then before the arrival of the ambulance team the following actions are performed.
What to do with iodine poisoning:
- take warm water for 1 glass 3-4 times, after each cause vomiting;
- in the last reception give 5 tablets of activated charcoal;
- dilute starch or flour in water - starch is a natural antidote for iodine;
- In case of contact with eyes or mouth, wash with warm water or wipe with a wet swab;
- from the skin iodine is washed off with 2% solution of soda.
Do not induce vomiting with severe pain in the esophagus, children under three years of age. Babies need to provide a copious drink, give 3 tablets of coal, a solution of starch and wait for the doctor to arrive.
The antidote for iodine is sodium thiosulfate. It is given to drink as a 5% solution in an amount of 1-2 glasses and rinse the mouth.
- Inside take enveloping agents: starch jelly, eggs, milk, butter.
- Apply forced diuresis.
- Eliminate dehydration by infusion of intravenous solutions.
- Intravenous sodium thiosulfate is administered.
- The eyes are washed with water, a 2% solution of Dicaine is instilled.
- With severe pain, an anesthetic is prescribed.
- Apply funds that stimulate cardiac activity; relieve bronchospasm and give antitussive drugs. If the lungs are severely affected, prolonged inhalation with oxygen is prescribed.
In severe cases, you may need hemodialysis.
Consequences of iodine poisoning
With the timely provision of medical care for poisoning with iodine, the consequences for the body will be minimal. In general, they are associated with its effect on the mucous membranes of the digestive tract and toxic damage to the liver and kidneys.
On the recommendation of the doctor, a certain time will be needed to maintain a sparing diet. In chronic poisoning, it is necessary to conduct research on the content of iodine in the body and check the function of the thyroid gland. At the termination of receipt of an element in an organism it is deduced quickly enough.
When poisoning with iodine, take measures to provide first aid, in parallel, you should contact an ambulance. With the provision of skilled care, the disease is successfully treated, and the consequences are minimal. In chronic cases it is necessary to undergo a medical examination for the purpose of optimal treatment.