Poisoning at sea
Summer, the sea and the sun - what could be better for a family holiday? But in order to leave only pleasant impressions, it is advisable to follow the recommendations of sanitary doctors, allowing you to keep your health and your loved ones. Poisoning at sea, as well as infectious diseases - is not uncommon, as a hot climate, coastal strip and mass gatherings of people from different parts of the world complicate the situation. For a person with a weak immune system, climate change, heat or hypothermia in water can become a serious stress, weakening the body and increasing its susceptibility to pathogenic agents.
Can it be poisoned by sea water, with which it is easy to confuse food poisoning at sea and how to provide first aid to the victim? In what cases is it necessary to see a doctor, and when can you limit yourself to self-medication? Let's understand.
Can I poison myself with sea water
Vacationers at sea often complain about poisoning with sea water. The disease is accompanied by fever, vomiting, poor health, less often a disorder of the stool. Especially susceptible to such diseases are small children.
What is really happening? Is it really dangerous to swim in the sea?
Doctors-infectionists in one voice assert that the sea water itself is absolutely safe. The increased content of sea salt and iodine compounds gives it weak antiseptic properties. For this reason, seawater is not able to serve as a medium for the preservation and spread of intestinal or other infections, as happens in contaminated fresh water bodies and water supply sources.
Saline solutions rinse the throat with laryngitis, wash the nose with a cold, with them draw the trays for purulent skin diseases. In addition, to get sick, you need to get a sufficiently large dose of toxic substance. And this is not fresh water, you can not drink a lot of it.
What happens if you swallow sea water while bathing? Usually this is the sin of children. If the baby has received a significant portion of water, poisoning the child at sea can be manifested by nausea and vomiting, poor health, loss of appetite. There will be no temperature and diarrhea. This condition is caused by the action of salt water on the stomach wall. It takes place for one day, and to relieve the nausea it is recommended to drink a lot of ordinary water.
Causes of poisoning at sea
If there are other signs, then, most likely, the sick person became a victim of one of the following factors.
- Infection. In resort areas children, and sometimes adults, often pick up enterovirus or rotavirus enteritis. Characteristic are multiple vomiting, diarrhea, fever above 38 ° C.
- Food poisoning. An intestinal infection may develop as a result of food poisoning. Contribute to poor quality of products, a hot climate, food in unsanitary conditions, exotic cuisine, a change in the usual diet. Characteristic signs - vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, sometimes the temperature, usually low (if there is no intestinal infection).
- Sunstroke or overheating. If there is a violation of the body's thermoregulation, the body temperature rises, a person experiences weakness, fainting, headaches. There is a possible one-time vomiting, a feeling of nausea. Diarrhea does not occur with a thermal shock. Body temperature can rise above 38 ° C.
Common symptoms of poisoning
With intestinal infections and food poisoning at sea, symptoms can manifest themselves in varying degrees. In order to begin treatment, it is not necessary to accurately establish the diagnosis - intestinal disorders are treated equally. The danger is not to miss serious infectious diseases - typhus, salmonellosis, cholera, botulism or poisoning with toxins. With mild poisoning or infection, amenable to therapy at home, there will be the following symptoms:
- sometimes sneezing and runny nose.
Usually the disease begins with an acute fever and vomiting. Pass these disorders for 2-3 days. Sometimes, with a slow development of the disease, diarrhea and high fever occur 2-3 days from the beginning.
First aid for poisoning at sea
- When poisoning with sea water, if a child or an adult has swallowed it a lot, it is recommended to drink more liquid and eat easily digestible foods.
- If there is a certainty that this is food poisoning, then you need to rinse the stomach with a lot of salted water or a solution of potassium permanganate of a slightly pink color - drink, tear, drink again and so several times until the stomach clears from the food masses.
- If there is a suspicion of viral enteritis, then it is not necessary to provoke vomiting. The mild form will pass for a couple of days, with a serious course of the disease - see a doctor.
- With a thermal shock, the victim is placed in the shade, wiped off with cool water.
After taking the first measures, they begin to treat the poisoning.
Treatment of poisoning at sea
Here is a rough outline of how to treat poisoning at sea.
- With severe vomiting and diarrhea, it is necessary to take preparations from dehydration: "Regidron", "Hydrovit." If they are not available - drink mineral water, after releasing gas from the bottle. Suit and home analogue "Regidron" - sweetened water with a pinch of salt (for one liter of 1 teaspoon of salt and 4-6 teaspoons of sugar).
- Preparations against infection. To prevent paroxysm of opportunistic intestinal microflora, take " Enterofuril ". Antibiotics are not recommended to drink (doctors prescribe them only in 10% of cases of intestinal infections).
- If there is a suspicion of rotavirus or coronoviral enteritis, antiviral drugs, "Citovir," are taken.
- A universal medicine for poisoning on the sea in tourists - Smecta. It stops diarrhea, has emollient properties and is an adsorbent - a substance that absorbs toxins. Analogues of "Smecta" possessing only adsorbing action (in order of decreasing efficiency): Polysorb MP, Enterosgel, Polyphepan, activated carbon. Take them need in between other medications.
- Antipyretic drugs drink at a temperature above 38.5? C. Remember that children should not be given aspirin, they need a drug based on paracetamol or analgin. In order to reduce body temperature, you can wipe the child with a wet towel. It is good to knock down the heat by wiping with a solution of table vinegar (9%) - 1 part vinegar in 2 parts water.
- Abundant drink to restore fluid loss and accelerate the elimination of toxins from the body.
- The first day - a hunger diet, then switch to a sparing diet: liquid porridge, mashed soups.
When a child is poisoned at sea, a doctor must be consulted in the following cases:
- a child under the age of three;
- signs of dehydration (loss of skin elasticity, sunken eyes, cracked lips, little urine);
- dark urine;
- uncharacteristic signs (difficulty swallowing, breathing disorder, rash, swelling of the joints).
It is also necessary to consult a doctor, both children and adults, if vomiting does not occur within 24 hours.
Prevention of poisoning at sea
How to avoid poisoning at sea and other troubles, so as not to spoil your holiday and keep your health? Be attentive to your health and avoid questionable situations:
- Beforehand take with you on a trip to the sea the necessary medicines;
- Do not be in the sun at the peak of the heat;
- wear hats and light clothing;
- Wash all vegetables and fruits thoroughly;
- do not eat salads;
- if possible, use disposable or personal utensils;
- try to eat in one canteen, not in different ones;
- in the heat, try not to buy meat products;
- Do not buy food from the private sellers who carry it on the beach;
- watch the quality of drinking water - it's best to buy bottled water.
Let's sum up. When resting in coastal areas, people often face such troubles as intestinal infections and poisoning. Characteristic - vomiting, diarrhea, fever. Treatment symptomatic: the use of reducing fluids, enterosorbents, antipyretic drugs. It is recommended to maintain a sparing diet. If signs of acute intestinal infection or poisoning with strong toxins appear, contact your doctor immediately.