Pesticide poisoning - symptoms and first aid
Pesticides belong to a group of chemicals used in the agricultural industry to control plant pathogens, weeds, pests of wool, cotton, leather products, as well as ectoparasites of domestic animals.
By chemical nature, this can be a variety of substances: organochlorine, containing heavy metals (for example, copper or mercury), derivatives of organophosphorus or carbamide containing substances.
They can keep their poisoning effect long enough: from 1 month - are classified as low-resistant, up to two years - for particularly persistent substances.
Where can I get poisoned with pesticides?
Poisoning by pesticides can be both domestic and professional.
If a person's work is related to agriculture, cropping, then the violation of safety rules in the preparation of solutions of these substances, their use, cleaning and repair of equipment used in spraying plants, can lead to sad consequences.
In the life of poisoning can occur when people do not have a direct relationship to the use of pesticides, but violate the rules for their storage or begin to use them ineptly - for example, to poison insects.
Ways of penetration of pesticides into the human body and animals can be the following:
- by alimentary route (the intake of food processed by pesticides);
- airborne droplets (entry of pesticides into the body through the upper respiratory tract - inhalation);
- through the skin.
Toxicity of pesticides
In the ability to harm health, many factors play a role:
- the degree of toxicity of the substance;
- its resistance, the rate of destruction in nature;
- the ability to accumulate in products and organisms (cumulative);
- fat or water solubility (this is called lipophilicity or hydrophilicity);
- way of entering the body.
Entering into the human body pesticides, even in small amounts, cause a violation of the functional state, which manifests certain clinical symptoms, the effect of which depends on the type of substance.
Symptoms of pesticide poisoning
In case of intoxication with pesticides on the basis of organophosphorus compounds (often used to control insects), then the signs predominate:
- damage to the nervous system - twitching of the muscles starts, which turn into convulsions;
- damage to the respiratory and circulatory organs: motor excitement, confusion of consciousness, pupils become narrow, rales appear in the lungs;
- there comes a loss of consciousness to the level of coma, the pressure drops and the activity of the heart stops.
The compounds containing chlorine have a somewhat different toxic effect. In this case, the initial signs of pesticide poisoning are related to their irritating effect.
- first develop redness on the skin;
- sore throat;
- muscle weakness comes;
- damage to the kidneys or liver;
- loss of consciousness;
- in severe cases - death.
Poisoning with pesticides, the symptoms of which begin with the appearance in the mouth of a strange after-taste, can talk about the toxic effects of mercury-containing poisons. Although a similar clinical picture can be observed with the action of other heavy metals - arsenic, cadmium, copper. In this case, the following are affected:
- hematopoiesis system;
- the digestive tract;
- there is a disturbance of the psyche and a disturbance of consciousness;
- there is weakness and muscle trembling.
In the absence of timely treatment, the consequences can be very difficult.
First aid for poisoning with pesticides
How to help a person if he is poisoned with pesticides?
The first point is to determine which substance caused the violation of health. First aid for poisoning with pesticides depends on this.
In any case, it is necessary first of all to stop the action of the poison on the body (for example, to bring a person to fresh air).
The second is measures aimed at removing poison from the body. It is necessary to wash the poison from the skin with running water. In the case of oral poisoning (intake of poison through the mouth), it is necessary to perform gastric lavage. In case of loss of consciousness, you can not induce vomiting! The probe washing will, of course, be effective, but requires some medical skills.
From the intestine, the poison is removed by carrying out purifying and siphon enemas.
You can accelerate the excretion of the poison by increasing urination (forced diuresis). After a lot of drinking or intravenous fluids, the patient is injected with diuretics.
It is also necessary to prevent the absorption of poison. In this help enveloping substances - Almagel, starch, egg white, and sorbents - activated charcoal, Polyphepan.
The third point that must be met if pesticide poisoning is diagnosed is treatment with substances that cause the poison already poisoned to be rendered harmless. It can be Antarsin, Unithiol, sodium thiosulfate - there is an antidote for every poisonous agent. Therefore, as a rule, the third stage of care is already in the hospital, as it is right to select an antidote and only a doctor can use it.
Further measures of care are specialized and depend on the individual clinical situation (dialysis, hemosorption, plasmapheresis).
So, we summarize - first aid in case of an accident involving poisoning with pesticides should be carried out immediately, but after that the victim should be delivered to the hospital as soon as possible, as the danger of toxic compounds is very high and at any moment life-threatening complications may occur.
Prevention of pesticide poisoning
Considering the serious harm that can be caused to the health of pesticides, the main thing is the prevention of poisoning by pesticides.
- It is necessary to strictly observe the safety rules for the storage and use of these substances.
- Observe personal hygiene (thorough washing of skin after use of pesticides).
- Wear protective clothing and personal protective equipment (gas masks, respirators).
In this case, as always in life, the rule of gold works: who is warned - he is armed!