What to do if the dog ate rat poison
Poisoning with rat poison in dogs is rare, as bait for rodents is not very attractive in terms of carnivores. Also for the manifestation of the action of poison, it is required to take a sufficiently large dose. The number of patients who applied for veterinary care in case of poisoning of dogs with baits for rodents is less than 0.1% of cases.
The risk of eating a dog with poisoned baits increases if they are made on the basis of meat components. In addition, the animal can be poisoned if it eats several carcasses of a rodent killed from poison. Rare, but serious cases are intoxication rodenticides (poisons for rodents) acute action.
How to recognize the signs of intoxication and what to do if the dog is poisoned by rat poison?
What is rat poison?
Rat poison is used to kill rodents. With it, baits are made, usually on a grain basis. Let out and ready briquettes, paste or granules.
There are two groups of rodenticides:
- acute agents;
- means subacute and chronic action.
In the free sale there are only baits with poisons of the second group, since they are less dangerous for humans and animals. A limited number of rodenticides included in the State Catalog of Pesticides and Agrochemicals of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia and Rospotrebnadzor are allowed on the territory of the Russian Federation.
Rodenticides related to rat poison:
- ratsid (alpha-naphthylthiourea);
- zinc phosphide.
When the dog is poisoned with rat poison, the signs will depend on the group to which the rodenticide belongs.
Why dangerous rat poisons for dogs
The action of rat poison on dogs is distinguished by the types of toxin.
- Anticoagulants of the first generation (warfarin, ethylphenacin, isopropylphenacin, triphenacin) - the most common active ingredient in rodents baits. The mechanism of action is based on a violation of the synthesis of vitamin K and the loss of the ability of the blood to coagulate. The poisons of this group are relatively quickly eliminated from the body. Dogs show a specific sensitivity to warfarin, the lethal dose for them is 6 mg / kg body weight. For ethylphenacin this dose is 7000-70000 mg / kg of weight.
- Anticoagulants of the second generation (bromadiolon, brodifacum, flocumafen). The mechanism of action is the same as in the first group of rodenticides, but these poisons are able to accumulate in the body, the period of excretion is longer, and therefore they are stronger. The lethal dose of brodifacum for dogs is 3.5 mg / kg body weight.
- The rat. It is used rarely because of high toxicity. Causes pulmonary edema, convulsions and vascular reactions. The lethal dose for dogs is 60-150 mg / kg of body weight. It is used in the form of 10% gel.
- Zinc phosphide is very toxic, it is used only under the control of specialists in deratization (destruction of rodents). When poison enters the stomach, hydrogen phosphorous is released, which destroys the gastric mucosa and acts on the nervous system.
If the dog ate a rat poison with anticoagulants, then the toxin effect will manifest not immediately, but in 3-5 days. This is due to the presence of vitamin K in the body.
Symptoms of poisoning with rat dog poison
Consider the signs of poisoning with rat poison in dogs, which includes anticoagulants (zookoumarins, coumarins):
- pallor of the mucous membranes;
- bleeding from the nose, gums;
- lack of appetite.
In severe cases, bleeding from the rectum, blood in the urine, subcutaneous hemorrhage, abdominal pain, lameness, coughing up with blood. The animal dies from numerous hemorrhages.
With timely provision of veterinary care, the prognosis is favorable - more than 85% of dogs recover. However, the owners should be aware that with a repeated poisoning with rat poison, the chances of recovery are less, since the animal has an increased sensitivity to it.
Krysid and zinc phosphide are practically not used at present. When poisoning with rat poison the symptoms of zinc phosphide are:
- vomiting, sometimes with an admixture of blood;
- labored breathing;
- dilated pupils;
- loss of consciousness.
Symptoms of ratsid poisoning:
- difficulty breathing due to developing pulmonary edema;
- weak pulse;
- absence of urination;
Symptoms develop within a few hours after eating the bait.
What to do if the dog is poisoned by rat poison
Is it possible to save a dog from poisoning with rat poison? In most cases, when eating baits with anticoagulants, the outcome is favorable.
What if the dog ate the rat poison before your eyes? The first aid is rendered to the pet:
- as soon as possible to induce vomiting;
- rinse the stomach with a slightly pink solution of potassium permanganate;
- give any adsorbent (activated carbon suspension, "Polysorb MP", "Enterosorb", "Polyphepan");
- give the dog a salt laxative (magnesium sulfate);
- water the dog with slimy decoctions, best of all with flaxseed, but you can also rice or Herculean.
What can not be done? Do not induce vomiting, if after eating the bait more than 4-6 hours have passed - from the stomach everything has already passed into the intestines. Also, do not induce vomiting, if the dog has signs of impairment of the nervous system: convulsions, loss of consciousness, paralysis.
Do not give the animal milk, eggs, vegetable oil, castor oil. When zinc phosphide is poisoned, it only speeds up the absorption of poison into the blood.
In case of poisoning with anticoagulants, the antidote is vitamin K1 - phytomenadione. It is administered subcutaneously in a dose of 2.5-5 mg per kg of dog weight. If it is known that the animal has eaten a bait with a rodenticide of the first generation, then the dose will be less - 0.25-2.5 mg per kg.
When a rat is poisoned with a specific antidote there. In the stomach, the poison is tied with a 1% solution of tannin.
When eating lures with zinc phosphide inside give a 0.5% solution of copper sulfate to the appointment of a veterinarian or 2% solution of baking soda.
Treatment of poisoning with rat poison in dogs
When the first signs of intoxication of the dog appear, seek veterinary help - poisoning with rat poison should be able to distinguish from certain blood diseases. The doctor will diagnose and prescribe the treatment.
- It takes a long course of vitamin K1 - one to four weeks, depending on the poison and laboratory blood tests.
- If possible, blood or plasma transfusion is done on the first day to replenish red blood cells and stocks of clotting factors.
- In case of acute poisons poisoning, symptomatic treatment is performed: anticonvulsant and cardiac drugs, restoration of liver function, treatment of pulmonary edema.
Let's sum up. When poisoning with rat poison the symptoms and treatment will depend on what active ingredient was in the bait. The most common poisons that violate the coagulation of blood (anticoagulants - coumarins, zookoumarins). The effect of toxins manifests itself a few days after they enter the body. Developing a refusal from feed, weakness, bleeding from the nose and gums, sometimes detect blood in the urine and feces.
As an antidote subcutaneously injected with vitamin K1 - phytomenadione. The treatment will take several weeks. The specialist's help is obligatory, since various complications can arise. Also it is necessary to conduct differential diagnosis from other diseases with similar symptoms.