What to do if the dog ate rat poison
Poisoning with rat poison in dogs is rare, because rodent baits are not very attractive from the point of view of carnivores. Also for the manifestation of the action of the poison is required to take a large enough dose. The number of patients seeking veterinary care in the event of poisoning dogs with rodent baits is less than 0.1% of cases.
The risk of the dog eating poisoned baits increases if they are made on the basis of meat components. In addition, the animal can be poisoned if it eats several carcasses of a rodent who died of poison. Rare, but serious cases represent intoxication with rodenticides (poisons for rodents) of acute action.
How to recognize signs of intoxication and what to do if the dog was poisoned by rat poison?
What is rat poison
Rat poison is used to kill rodents. With him make bait, usually on a grain basis. Release and finished briquettes, pasta or granules.
There are two groups of rodenticides:
- means of acute action;
- means of subacute and chronic action.
Only bait with poisons of the second group are commercially available, since they are less dangerous to humans and animals. On the territory of the Russian Federation, a limited number of rodenticides included in the lists of the State Catalog of Pesticides and Agrochemicals of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia and Rospotrebnadzor is allowed for use.
Rat poison rodenticides:
- rats (alpha naphthylthiocarbamide);
- zinc phosphide.
When a dog is poisoned with rat poison, the signs will depend on the group to which the rodenticide belongs.
What are dangerous rat poisons for dogs?
The effects of rat poison on dogs are differentiated by the type of toxin.
- First-generation anticoagulants (warfarin, ethylphenacin, isopropylfenacin, triphenacin) are the most common active ingredient in rodent baits. The mechanism of action is based on the violation of the synthesis of vitamin K and the loss of blood coagulation ability. Poisons of this group are relatively quickly excreted from the body. Dogs exhibit species sensitivity to warfarin, the lethal dose for them is 6 mg / kg body weight. For ethylphenacin, this dose is 7000-70000 mg / kg of weight.
- Second generation anticoagulants (bromadiolone, brodifacoum, flocumafen). The mechanism of action is the same as that of the first group of rodenticides, but these poisons are able to accumulate in the body, the period of elimination from them is longer, therefore they act stronger. The lethal dose of brodifacum for dogs is 3.5 mg / kg body weight.
- Krysid. It is rarely used due to its high toxicity. It causes pulmonary edema, convulsions and impaired vascular reactions. The lethal dose for dogs is 60–150 mg / kg body weight. It is used in the form of a 10% gel.
- Zinc phosphide is very toxic, it is used only under the control of rodent control (rodent extermination). When poison in the stomach releases phosphorous hydrogen, which destroys the gastric mucosa and acts on the nervous system.
If the dog has eaten rat poison with anticoagulants, then the effect of the toxin will not manifest itself immediately, but in 3-5 days. This is due to the presence of reserves of vitamin K in the body.
Symptoms of poisoning with rat poison dogs
Consider the signs of poisoning by rat poison in dogs, which include anticoagulants (zoocumarins, coumarins):
- pallor of mucous membranes;
- bleeding from the nose, gums;
- lack of appetite.
In severe cases, there are bleeding from the rectum, blood in the urine, subcutaneous hemorrhages, abdominal pain, lameness, coughing up blood. The animal dies from numerous hemorrhages.
With timely provided veterinary care, the prognosis is favorable - more than 85% of dogs recover. However, owners should be aware that when they are poisoned again with rat poison, there is less chance of recovery, as the animal becomes more sensitive to it.
Zinc rat and phosphide are practically not used at present. When poisoning the dog with rat poison, the symptoms of zinc phosphide will be:
- vomiting, sometimes mixed with blood;
- labored breathing;
- dilated pupils;
- loss of consciousness.
Symptoms of Rat Poisoning:
- difficulty breathing due to developing pulmonary edema;
- weak pulse;
- no urination;
Symptoms develop within a few hours after eating the bait.
What to do if the dog was poisoned by rat poison
Is it possible to save a dog in case of poisoning with rat poison? In most cases, when eating bait with anticoagulants, the outcome is favorable.
What if the dog ate rat poison on your eyes? Pet provide first aid:
- vomiting as soon as possible;
- wash the stomach with a weak pink solution of potassium permanganate;
- give any adsorbent (suspension of activated carbon, Polysorb MP, Enterosorb, Polifepan);
- give the dog a saline laxative (magnesium sulfate);
- drink the dog mucous broths, best flaxseed, but you can rice or hercules.
What not to do? You should not induce vomiting, if after eating the bait more than 4-6 hours have passed - everything has passed from the stomach into the intestine. You also can not cause vomiting, if the dog has signs of impaired activity of the nervous system: convulsions, loss of consciousness, paralysis.
You can not give the animal milk, eggs, vegetable oil, castor oil. In case of zinc phosphide poisoning, this only speeds up the absorption of poison into the blood.
In case of poisoning with anticoagulants, the antidote is vitamin K1 - phytomenadione. It is administered subcutaneously at a dose of 2.5–5 mg per kg of dog weight. If it is known that the animal ate the bait with the first generation rodenticide, the dose will be less - 0.25–2.5 mg per kg.
When poisoning with a rat, there is no specific antidote. In the stomach, poison is associated by evaporation of a 1% solution of tannin.
When eating bait with zinc phosphide inside, they give a 0.5% solution of copper sulfate for the purpose of a veterinarian or a 2% solution of baking soda.
Treatment of rat poisoning in dogs
When the first signs of dog intoxication appear, seek veterinary care - poisoning with rat poison should be able to be distinguished from certain blood diseases. The doctor will diagnose and prescribe treatment.
- It will take a long course of vitamin K1 - from one to four weeks, depending on the poison and laboratory blood tests.
- If possible, blood or plasma transfusions are made on the first day to replenish red blood cells and reserves of coagulation factors.
- In case of poisoning with acute poisoning, symptomatic treatment is carried out: anticonvulsant and cardiac drugs, restoration of liver function, treatment of pulmonary edema.
Let's sum up. If the dog is poisoned with rat poison, the symptoms and treatment will depend on the active ingredient in the bait. The most common poisons that violate blood clotting (anticoagulants - coumarins, zookumariny). The effect of toxins is manifested a few days after they enter the body. Refusal of feed, weakness, bleeding from the nose and gums develop, sometimes they detect blood in the urine and feces.
As an antidote, vitamin K1 - phytomenadione is injected subcutaneously. It will take treatment for several weeks. The help of a specialist is obligatory, as there may be various complications. You also need to conduct a differential diagnosis of other diseases with similar symptoms.