In our mind, water causes pleasant sensations. Thoughts of danger or mortal danger do not immediately come to mind. But everything has a downside and properties that are so useful to us can harm in a certain situation. After all, water is a universal solvent. It feels good germs and viruses. This is the ideal environment for their reproduction. Also, chemical reactions take place in the water, as a result of which non-toxic substances can form hazardous to health. Industrial waste and pesticides often get into the water, and, passing through the layers of the earth, it washes away radioactive elements.
So let's talk about why water from a source of life and longevity sometimes turns into an inconspicuous killer. How to avoid water poisoning. How to recognize the cause of poisoning and provide first aid.
Poisoning with excess water - water poisoning, occurs when it is excessive intake per unit of time. Human kidneys are able to miss a maximum of a liter of water per hour. If more water enters during this time, then one of the main mechanisms in our system is disrupted - the law of equilibrium between fluid intake and its elimination. This knocks down the work of all organs. The excess water begins to soak them, and they swell.
In the tissues supported the necessary for life concentration of trace elements. Water disrupts this concentration. This immediately affects the contractility of the muscles:
- cramps occur;
- broken heart work.
The brain carries the water load the hardest - it swells. Emerging edema compresses vital centers governing the work of the organs. First there is a confused consciousness, then vomiting. With an increase in brain edema, the center of respiration is blocked and death occurs.
Similar situations of water intoxication are found in girls sitting on the "water" diet. With active sports, drinking large doses of alcohol, in combination with psychostimulants. All this can dramatically increase thirst and bring to a dangerous dose - more than two liters in one hour.
As a result, we get a detailed picture of the poisoning. And on the water, we do not think. That is, because what is cunning!
Symptoms of water poisoning
If you exceed the amount of water you drink, then edema will come to the fore in the symptoms.
Symptoms of water hyperhydration:
- swelling of the feet, face;
- vomiting without relief;
- lethargy, lethargy, confusion;
- convulsions are possible;
- high blood pressure;
- interruptions in the work of the heart;
- intestinal colic, loose stools.
If time does not take action, the brain edema will cause a cessation of breathing.
How to avoid water poisoning?
- Do not drink more than a liter of water per hour.
- It is permissible to drink up to two liters of water per day.
Given that with food we get about one liter of water, then there is still one liter.
Thirst is a sure sign of a lack of water in the body. So, it signals the onset of dehydration. Obeying this feeling and guided by common sense, we usually drink a safe dose of fluid.
Poisoning with polluted tap water
Is it possible to get poisoned by water? - yes, if it is dirty. Indeed, such cases are frequent. The symptoms of such poisoning are easy to recognize:
- relief vomiting;
- nausea and abdominal pain;
- diarrhea and cramps in the intestines;
- temperature rise.
Water poisoning from the tap is a good example of dirty water poisoning. This type of poisoning has become a pandemic. News bulletins are full of massive cases of poisoning. And this is not surprising, because something just does not get along with the water in our kettles, cups and pans. In addition, the deadly toxic chemicals get millions of viruses and pathogenic microbes. Most often in the water from the tap live:
- E. coli;
- typhoid fever;
- causative agent of cholera.
They cause severe poisoning. The way out in this situation is boiling tap water.
Is it possible to get poisoned with boiled water? Boiling destroys pathogenic microbes, E. coli, Vibrio cholerae and causative agents of typhoid fever. The likelihood of acute intestinal poisoning is sharply reduced. This is a big plus. The question of viruses and parasites is removed.
But boiling does not save from other misfortunes that may be in the water:
- industrial dirt;
- residues of petroleum products.
In these cases, water poisoning does not occur immediately after a cup of coffee, but imperceptibly. Day by day, the liver is etched, the kidneys are cemented, the vessels are clogged and carcinogenic accumulates. Therefore, boiling and purifying water is the protection of the body.
In search of purified water everywhere began to use coolers. But we must remember that in order to avoid water poisoning from the cooler it is necessary to strictly monitor its cleanliness. Disinfection of internal tanks, removal of limescale deposits (scale), mucus, can significantly reduce the possibility of poisoning.
In the cooler, blue-green algae can form, dangerous bacteria, such as E. coli or viruses, can enter it. For safe use of the cooler, it is necessary to sanitize it once every six months with special preparations and wash it with bottled water.
Mineral water poisoning
We omit here the description of poisoning caused by fake mineral water - this is a matter of law enforcement. But getting an upset stomach can be from quite legal products.
Many people do not ask about the features of mineral water. What is mineral water?
- Medical dining room.
- Sparkling mineral water.
Medical and medical-table mineral water can not, in any case, be used to quench thirst. This water contains a large amount of salts and biologically active trace elements, it is taken in small quantities for the purpose of treatment. The permissible rate per day is a few tablespoons. What happens if you drink a liter of medicinal water right away? - Typical intestinal disorder, with all the "charms": colic and abdominal pain, profuse diarrhea, weakness. Ideally, the sale of medicinal water should be carried out only by pharmacies.
You can quench your thirst with dining and mineralized water - it is harmless.
If there is a sick stomach, then it is necessary to refrain from soda water. Carbon dioxide has an irritating effect on the gastric mucosa and can cause abdominal pain.
Poisoning water from the pool
We come to the pool for health, but we get poisoning from its water. Together with the popularity of swimming pools, the number of poisonings in them is increasing. The culprits - E. coli and bacteria of the genus Clostridium.
But diarrhea after visiting the pool - not the last attack. Hygiene when swimming in the pool is violated everywhere. Not all conscientiously visit the shower before bathing, instruct the child not to urinate in the pool. Then we reap the rewards. It is well established that when interacting with sweat and urine with special additives in the pool, chlorian and nitrogen chloride are formed. It is precisely cyanogen is very toxic - a small amount is enough for severe poisoning.
What to do when water poisoning
For any poisoning, the first thing to do is to determine its appearance.
- With excessive use of water - water intoxication (overload), general pastoznost (puffiness) of the body catches the eye. Leading neurological symptoms associated with cerebral edema. Sodium levels are low in the blood. In this case, urgent measures are required. It is more reasonable to call an ambulance and take the victim to the hospital. Where carefully, under the supervision of injected sodium chloride solution. At the same time, the level of sodium in the blood is constantly monitored, at a rate of 130 meq / l, the introduction of sodium chloride is stopped. At the same time, diuretics are prescribed: Lasix, Sorbitol, Mannitol. Assign hormonal drugs.
- In case of poisoning with polluted water, the symptoms more resemble food poisoning, but with more pronounced symptoms. Any multiplication of bacteria and viruses in the body leads to severe intoxication and fever. In order to determine which pathogen caused the poisoning, an infection disease survey and a feces culture should be necessary. The sooner this is done, the better. With diarrhea and indomitable vomiting, the body loses a lot of fluid - delay leads to increased dehydration and imminent death.
Water is the most consumed product throughout our lives, so its quality must be given serious attention. Tap water needs to be boiled and filtered. Be wary of natural sources - their healing properties are often long gone. And mineral water to read the recommendations, so as not to harm the body.