Car exhaust poisoning
The car is both the second wife and the iron friend of man. She will always listen, not judge, not betray. It is more the prerogative of men than women to do car repairs or arrange “garage sit-rounds”. For this reason, men are more likely to become victims of car exhaust poisoning.
Therefore, it will be useful for many car owners to find out the answers to the questions: under what conditions can intoxication with gasoline combustion products be possible, what are its signs, how to help the injured person? Let's find out, and at the same time we will learn about the treatment and the consequences of poisoning by the exhaust gases of the car.
How does carbon monoxide poisoning occur?
Exhaust gases can cause serious harm to the body, even fatal when working with a turned on car in a closed garage or car park. Poisoning can occur in car services in case of violation of safety regulations, in case of being in the cabin of a switched on car with faulty ventilation, in apartments located above the parking lots.
When inhalation of gasoline combustion products, acute intoxication occurs due to nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide. Prolonged exposure to exhaust gases in doses exceeding the maximum permissible, causes chronic poisoning by hydrocarbons, heavy metal compounds, leads to the formation of chronic diseases.
Clinical symptoms of poisoning
How to recognize poisoning? Symptoms of poisoning by exhaust gases are determined by the exposure of the victim to various toxic substances.
Nitric oxide (NO) - a gas without color and odor, interacting with oxygen in atmospheric air, is converted to NO2. Nitrogen dioxide from its severity settles in the lowlands, pits. Getting on a wet surface, NO2 turns into nitric acid and has a cauterizing effect on the mucous membrane of the mouth and respiratory tract. Contact with nitrogen dioxide causes the following symptoms:
- chest tightness;
- difficulty breathing;
- general weakness;
For intoxication is characterized by the presence of a latent period, when after the first manifestations the symptoms disappear almost completely. In case of severe poisoning after toxic well-being, toxic edema of the larynx and lungs develops. It manifests itself:
- progressive dyspnea;
- bubbling noisy breathing;
- cough with separation of mucous sputum mixed with blood;
- blue lips, nose tips, ears, pale skin;
- normal or slightly elevated blood pressure.
Pulmonary edema caused by nitrogen dioxide is called blue due to the characteristic skin color. This is important to see in connection with some features of his treatment.
Severe respiratory disorders develop in the first 1-2 days of the disease.
Carbon monoxide is dangerous to interact with hemoglobin. The resulting bond is very difficult to break. Carboxyhemoglobin cannot displace carbon monoxide and capture oxygen, which leads to tissue hypoxia (oxygen starvation). Intoxication is manifested by similar symptoms as from nitrogen oxides, but is added:
- throbbing in temples;
- darkening of the eyes;
There are 3 degrees of severity of poisoning. With the progression of intoxication, loss of consciousness and development of swelling of the brain and lungs occurs. The latter is called "gray" because of the corresponding color of the skin and mucous membranes.
Hydrocarbons (CxHx) have a toxic effect during incomplete combustion of fuel. Prolonged contact with a concentration of hydrocarbons, slightly exceeding the allowable values, causes chronic intoxication.
In case of poisoning with exhaust gases, symptoms of exposure to hydrocarbons appear:
- loss of consciousness.
Long-term effects are associated with an increased risk of developing cancer.
Heavy metal compounds
Mostly heavy metal poisoning is due to lead. Prolonged exposure to toxic compounds causes:
- double vision;
- difficulty swallowing;
- stomach ache;
- impaired memory, attention (cognitive impairment).
Inhalation of heavy metal compounds causes toxic effects on the nervous and respiratory systems, blood, blood vessels.
The impact of all components of the exhaust gases of the car on the human body in the complex enhances the toxic effects of each other.
Treatment for poisoning by exhaust gases
What to do in case of poisoning with exhaust gases? Due to the high risk of pulmonary edema, you should immediately call an ambulance! Regardless of whether the victim has a consciousness, you need to move a person to fresh air as quickly as possible. The patient must be kept calm and warm in order to save oxygen consumption by the tissues. In the future, the arrived team of medical assistance conducts oxygen therapy. Through catheters inserted into the nasal cavity, 50–60% oxygen is supplied.
If symptoms of pulmonary edema appear in case of poisoning with exhaust gases, first aid can be summarized as follows.
- The patient is helped to take a half-sitting position.
- The limbs are plaited to reduce the flow of blood to the lungs.
- Injections of cardiac drugs (Strofantin-K, Cordiamin), diuretic (Lasix), decongestants (Prednisolone) are given.
- 40% glucose is introduced, at the initial stage of poisoning 10% calcium chloride is used.
Further poisoning by vehicle exhaust continue to be treated in the hospital. The ineffectiveness of the measures taken is an indication for artificial ventilation of the lungs. In order to detoxify, hemosorption is performed. In the absence of the threat of pulmonary edema, saline solutions, glucose are administered by intravenous drip, followed by stimulation of urine output. Antibiotics are prescribed for the prevention of infectious complications.
Rehabilitation in case of severe poisoning with exhaust gases takes a long time and involves sanatorium aftercare.
Effects of exhaust gas poisoning
The consequences of poisoning with exhaust gases can be early and late. In the initial stages of the disease, the likelihood of death from intoxication is high, and in the later stages - from pulmonary edema, brain, severe pulmonary inflammation.
Distant consequences are reduced to the development of chronic diseases of the respiratory system, oncological processes. The consequences can be so serious that it can be a question of disability.
The number of car owners is growing every year, so knowledge of the dangers of combustion products will not be superfluous. Exhaust gases contain many substances that affect the body in different ways. The course of the disease depends on many factors and in each case may take a different turn. It is important to remember the danger of complications of poisoning and the threat of death, so it is important to observe the precautions when working in the garage, not to be careless when the car engine is on. And in case of suspicion of poisoning - promptly seek medical help.