Poisoning gall fungus
Mushroom poisoning most often occurs as a result of the accidental use of poisonous. This happens as a result of neglect of such food - the purchase of unidentified mushrooms from the hands, the collection of unknown species or the use of home canned food of dubious origin. Intoxication can also be the result of an error in recognizing the type of fungus.
From the food point of view, all the mushrooms are divided into edible, those that can not be and poisonous. The most common representative of the group of inedible fungi growing on the territory of our country is a gall fungus, or a gorchak. Consider what are the signs of poisoning with gall fungus and how dangerous it is to eat.
Gall mushroom - description
Another name of the bitter - false white mushroom. It is widely distributed in central Russia. The growing season is from June to the end of October, with early frosts only until the end of September. The fruit body is 5–10 cm in size, it reaches up to 15 cm. The leg is thick, strong, with a clearly defined mesh. The hat is massive, rounded, spongy structure. From above, the cap is covered with a dense film; in the process of growth, its color changes from light brown to saturated ocher. Spores pink or pinkish-brown staining.
Gorchak prefers light soils: loam, sandstone; settles mainly on the edges of light forest or in coniferous plantings. It is often found near trunks and stumps, in dry weather, it can grow on rotten wood. Usually, gorchak forms groups of 5–15 individuals, but sometimes it settles alone.
Gorchak looks very attractive. Almost never damaged by insects and worms. Its pulp is fleshy, white in color, reddens in the cut, but maybe it doesn’t change color. It tastes very bitter, has no smell.
The young gall fungus, poisoning of which, possibly due to incorrect identification, does not yet have a pronounced color of spores. Gorchak is often confused with boletus mushrooms - white, brownberry, or porcini mushroom.
Gorchak is distinguished from edible mushrooms by the following features:
- pink tubules;
- on the leg mesh pattern or clearly visible scales;
- the flesh of bitter taste, on a break turns pink;
- spore powder is colored pinkish.
Poisoning with a gall fungus is caused by tarry substances contained in the pulp, which strongly irritate the mucous membranes of the stomach and intestines. When you hit the tongue, even a small amount of them there is a strong burning sensation.
Thanks to the same substances in traditional medicine, gorchak is used as a choleretic agent. And during medical research, several active components were isolated from it, which have choleretic, immunostimulating and even anti-cancer properties.
Symptoms of gall mushroom poisoning
Poisoning with a gall fungus, whose symptoms are non-specific, is extremely rare. The bitter taste, which is only enhanced by cooking, prevents the fungus from eating and getting a large dose of toxins. There is evidence that you can get poisoned by eating homemade canned marinades and pickles, where bitterness is masked by spices and vinegar.
The toxicity of bitter is not proven. Scientists disagree: some believe that it is impossible to poison them, because its only danger is a bitter taste that can ruin any dish. For the same reason, eating gall fungus is extremely difficult.
Other researchers have suggested that the bitter toxins are somewhat similar to plant poisons that affect the liver cells. These substances can be absorbed into the blood even through the skin and, accumulating in the liver, attack its cells - the hepatocytes. A few weeks after the poison enters the body, signs of impaired bile production and separation develop, and other liver functions are reduced. When receiving large doses of toxin, the disease is able to turn into a chronic form, resulting in cirrhosis of the liver.
From a practical point of view, physicians attribute gorchak to a group of slightly poisonous mushrooms. Symptoms of gall fungus poisoning develop 2–3 hours after eating it, and sometimes half an hour is enough for them to appear:
- abdominal pain;
- indigestion (diarrhea).
Dehydration can develop due to vomiting and diarrhea. The outcome of the poisoning is favorable - within a few days the body recovers without any negative consequences.
First aid for poisoning with gall fungus includes the following steps.
Gastric lavage. It is necessary to remove food masses from the stomach in order to prevent further absorption of toxins. To do this, drink 2-3 glasses of salted water, then cause vomiting. The procedure is repeated until all the food masses are released.
- Adsorption of the toxin in the intestinal lumen. Take any drug from the group of intestinal sorbents: activated carbon, "Enterosgel", "Polysorb", "Polyphepan", "Smekta".
After that, the victim is placed in a bed, covered with a warm blanket. If there are signs of impaired breathing, neuromuscular regulation, confusion, then urgent hospitalization is necessary - most likely, another type of fungus has become poisoned, which can lead to serious consequences.
In case of poisoning with gall fungus, special treatment is not required. They take measures to restore the fluid and the water-salt balance: they drink more water, you can use salt solutions (“Regidron”, its analogues). The first day of a fasting diet, then eat easily digestible foods:
- vegetable stew;
- fruits of neutral taste;
- lean meat
In conclusion, we emphasize once again that the gorchak-mushroom is conditionally poisonous. To poison them is extremely difficult because of the pronounced bitter taste. If, nevertheless, in any way, the gorchak was eaten, then the symptoms of poisoning by the gall fungus will be nonspecific: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain. Dangers to life of the active substances contained in the bitter, do not represent. For treatment, it is enough to flush the stomach with plenty of water, take the enterosorbents and follow a sparing diet for several days.