Poisoning with bile fungus
Poisoning fungi most often occur as a result of accidental use of poisonous. This occurs as a result of negligent treatment of such food - the purchase of unidentified mushrooms from the hands, the collection of unknown species or the use of home preservation of doubtful origin. Also intoxication may be the result of an error in the recognition of the fungal species.
From the food point of view, all the mushrooms are divided into edible, those that can not be eaten and poisonous. The most common representative of a group of inedible mushrooms growing on the territory of our country is a bile fungus, or a bitter. Consider what are the signs of poisoning with a bile fungus and how dangerous is eating it.
Gall mushroom - description
Another name for gorchak is a false white fungus. It is widely distributed in the central part of Russia. The vegetation period is from June to the end of October, with early frosts only until the end of September. Fruit body 5-10 cm in size, reaches up to 15 cm. Leg is thick, strong, with a clearly defined mesh. The hat is massive, round, spongy. The top of the cap is covered with a dense film, in the process of growth, its color changes from light brown to saturated ocher. Spores of pink or pinkish-brown coloration.
Gorchak prefers light soils: loams, sandstones; settles mainly on the edge of a woodland or in coniferous plantations. Often it is found near trunks and stumps, in dry weather it can grow on rotten wood. Usually gorchak forms groups of 5-15 individuals, but sometimes it is located singly.
Gorchak looks very attractive. Virtually never damaged by insects and worms. The pulp is fleshy, white in color, it turns red on the cut, but it may not change coloration. The taste is very bitter, does not have a smell.
A young bile fungus, poisoning which, perhaps due to incorrect identification, does not yet have a pronounced coloring of the spores. Gorchak is often confused with mushrooms - white, podberezovikom, mushroom net or bronzovym.
Distinguish the bitter from edible mushrooms on the following grounds:
- straw tubules of pink color;
- on the stem a net pattern or clearly visible scales;
- the pulp of bitter taste, turns pink at the break;
- Spore powder is pinkish in color.
Poisoning with bile fungus causes resinous substances contained in the pulp, strongly irritating the mucous membranes of the stomach and intestines. When you get on the tongue, even a small amount of them, there is a strong burning sensation.
Thanks to these same substances, bitter in folk medicine is used as a cholagogue. And during medical research, several active components were isolated from it, which have choleretic, immunostimulating and even anti-cancer properties.
Symptoms of bile fungus poisoning
Poisoning with bile fungus, the symptoms of which are nonspecific, occurs extremely rarely. The bitter taste, which only increases with cooking, prevents the eating of the fungus and a large dose of toxins. There is evidence that you can poison yourself by eating homemade canned marinades and pickles, where bitterness is masked by spices and vinegar.
The bitter's toxicity is not proven. Scientists disagree: some believe that poisoning is impossible, because its only danger is a bitter taste that can spoil any dish. For the same reason, eating a bile fungus is extremely difficult.
Other researchers are of the opinion that the toxins of the gorchak are somewhat similar to the plant poisons that affect the liver cells. These substances can be absorbed into the blood even through the skin and, accumulating in the liver, attack its cells - hepatocytes. A few weeks after the poison enters the body, signs of impaired production and separation of bile develop, and other functions of the liver decrease. When receiving large doses of toxin, the disease can be transformed into a chronic form, resulting in cirrhosis of the liver.
From a practical point of view, doctors classify gorchak as a group of weakly poisonous fungi. Symptoms of poisoning with bile fungus develop 2-3 hours after eating it, sometimes enough for them to appear half an hour:
- abdominal pain;
- indigestion (diarrhea).
Due to vomiting and diarrhea, dehydration may develop. The outcome of poisoning is favorable - within a few days the body is restored without any negative consequences.
First aid for bile fox poisoning includes the following actions.
Gastric lavage. It is necessary to remove food masses from the stomach to prevent further absorption of toxins. For this drink 2-3 glasses of salted water, then cause vomiting. The procedure is repeated until all the food masses have come out.
- Adsorption of toxin in the lumen of the intestine. Take any drug from the group of intestinal sorbents: activated carbon, Enterosgel, Polysorb, Polyphepan, Smecta.
After this, the victim is laid in bed, covered with a warm blanket. If there are signs of a violation of breathing, neuromuscular regulation, confusion, then urgent hospitalization is needed - most likely, another type of fungus has been poisoned, which can lead to serious consequences.
When poisoning with bile fungus, no special treatment is required. Take measures to restore the fluid and water-salt balance: drink more water, you can use saline solutions ("Regidron", its analogs). The first day they observe a hunger diet, then they eat easily digestible foods:
- vegetable stew;
- fruit of neutral taste;
- low-fat meat.
In conclusion, we once again emphasize that the bitter-mushroom is conditionally poisonous. It is extremely difficult to poison them because of a pronounced bitter taste. If, however, somehow the bitter was eaten, then the symptoms of poisoning with bile fungus will be nonspecific: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain. Hazards to life, active substances contained in the bitter, do not represent. For treatment, it is sufficient to rinse the stomach with plenty of water, take enterosorbents and observe a sparing diet for several days.