Bee venom - description
In the modern world, despite the active development and great success of the pharmaceutical industry, environmentally friendly products and preparations are in increasing demand. They deservedly include bee products. About the healing properties of bee venom - apitoxin, has long been known.
Therefore, let us examine such questions, what is bee venom, how it is formed in bees, how it is mined, what it treats.
What is bee venom
Bee venom is a clear and thick liquid without a certain color (sometimes yellowish), has a peculiar smell that resembles honey, and a bitter or pungent taste. On air it quickly hardens and dissolves well in water. Without loss of activity, it retains its properties for a long time in the dried state and at a temperature difference (from freezing to heating). Bee sting contains protein substances (peptides, amino acids), bioactive compounds (histamine, dopamine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine), inorganic acids, fats, trace elements.
During a bite, the sting remains in the wound, which leads to the death of the bee, and the sharp smell of poison serves as a signal to the other bees to protect the nest (hive). When a bee stings into the wound gets from 0.2 to 0.8 mg of poison.
What is the use of bee venom
Many useful substances, including the sulfur-containing peptide Apimin, speak about the benefits of bee venom. What is its use?
- Immunomodulating effect - depending on its concentration, bee venom raises (immunostimulation) or inhibits the action of the body's defenses.
- The antiseptic, bactericidal and anti-inflammatory effect of bee venom persists at a significant dilution (1: 50,000).
- Bee venom is a powerful analgesic that is 50 times stronger than novocaine.
- Thins the blood (anticoagulant) and reduces the adhesion of red blood cells (antiplatelet agents).
- It reduces the amount of cholesterol and increases the level of red blood cells.
- Expands blood vessels and reduces their permeability.
- It has a general stimulating effect on many body systems - cardiovascular (normalization of heart rhythm and myocardial work), digestive (increases motility and secretion, normalizes liver function), endocrine (normalizes thyroid and adrenal glands).
- Improves sleep, memory, mood, prevents the occurrence of seizures.
What heals bee venom
Bee venom is used to treat the following diseases.
- Neurology Diseases of the peripheral nervous system of inflammatory nature - neuritis, radiculitis, neuralgia, paralysis and paresis after a stroke, damage to the nervous system - central and peripheral after injury, cerebral palsy, infectious, degenerative and age-related lesions of central and peripheral localization.
- Cardiology . Violation of the structure and rhythm of the myocardium, vascular lesion of an inflammatory nature.
- Pulmonology Inflammatory diseases of the bronchi and lungs, bronchial asthma.
- Endocrine diseases and hematology . Diabetes, thyrotoxicosis.
- Rheumatological and infectious diseases.
- Dermatology. Psoriasis, poorly healing wounds and trophic ulcers.
- Other systemic disorders of the body.
Contraindications to the use of bee venom
Despite the fact that bee venom has many useful properties for medical use, it is still not possible to use it for everyone. In the following cases, its use is contraindicated:
- intolerance, as an individual feature of the body;
- infectious diseases in the acute stage, including venereal, purulent, tuberculosis , osteomyelitis;
- decompensated stages of the cardiovascular and digestive systems;
- oncopathology of benign and malignant nature, including organic lesions of the central nervous system;
- blood diseases;
- directly after physical activity and water treatments.
In case of intolerance to bee venom, an allergic reaction develops after a bee sting.
- With a mild degree, itching and rash, fever, swelling and even necrosis at the site of the bite are possible.
- For a moderate degree, swelling of the face, larynx, and spasm of the respiratory tract are also characteristic.
- Severe or anaphylactic shock — laryngeal edema and suffocation, requires the immediate administration of an antidote — adrenaline to save a person’s life.
How to extract bee venom
Bee venom is in great demand, so let's find out how it is formed and how it is mined.
The bee venom results from the secretory function - the work of the thread-like glands in the stinging apparatus of the honeybee. It should be noted that the bee has two glands - large and small, one produces the acidic component of the poison, and the other - alkaline, which, when combined, reinforce their action. The quantity and quality of the poison depends on the age of the bee, the characteristics of the diet, the time of year.
The poison in the glands of the bee accumulates with age, reaching maximum reserves in two weeks from the moment of its exit from the wax cell.
There are several ways to collect bee venom:
- With the help of ether. A glass jar in which a sufficient number of adult bees is collected is covered with filter paper moistened with ether. Evaporating, it first irritates the bees, and they release poison, and then they put them to sleep. Water is poured into the jar and rinsed to dissolve the poison that the bees have isolated, then the resulting turbid liquid is filtered and evaporated. The result is a dry poison. Bees after such a procedure should be dried in the sun or indoors and carried to the hive. This method is characterized by drawbacks - low productivity, the bees only partially give up poison (from 50 to 75 mg out of a thousand bees), a rather high level of their death, the resulting poison contains various impurities (impure).
- Bees themselves give poison. This is a humane method in relation to bees. The hive is placed in a dark room, opening the lid, give them the opportunity to fly to the window (light source). They are taken one by one with tweezers and pressed abdomen to a certain glass or plastic container. The bee releases poison without damaging the sting, and flies off into the hive. The resulting poison quickly acquires a solid structure, it is clean and can be stored for a long time.
- "Milking" as a result of the electric discharge. Doctors have developed a special sieve with electric discharge, which irritates the bees, makes sting and give the poison. As in the previous method, the bees remain intact, and their glands again accumulate poison. At one time, an insect can release up to 0.3 mg of valuable product.
There are also methods of forced bite of a bee of fibrous masses or animal films, but they have not been widely used due to the disadvantages of labor-intensiveness and low efficiency.
Thus, bee venom is a valuable beekeeping product and, if used rationally under the supervision of a doctor, has miraculous possibilities. It should also be remembered that it is still a poison, which as self-treatment can lead to fatal consequences.