Bee venom - description
In the modern world, despite the active development and great success of the pharmaceutical industry, ecologically clean products and preparations are increasingly in demand. Beekeeping products deservedly belong to them. The healing properties of bee venom - apitoxin, has been known for a long time.
So let's analyze such questions as what is bee venom, how it is formed by bees, how it is extracted, what it heals.
What is bee venom
Bee venom is a clear and dense liquid without a certain color (sometimes yellowish), has a specific smell that resembles honey, and a bitter or burning taste. The air quickly hardens and dissolves well in water. Without loss of activity, it retains properties for a long time in the dried state and at a temperature drop (from freezing to heating). Bee venom contains substances of protein nature (peptides, amino acids), bioactive compounds (histamine, dopamine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine), inorganic acids, fats, trace elements.
During the sting, the stinger remains in the wound, which leads to the death of the bee, and the sharp smell of poison serves other bees as a signal to protect the nest (hive). When the bee stings in the wound, 0.2 to 0.8 mg of poison is ingested.
What is the use of bee venom
Many useful substances, including the sulfur-containing peptide Apimin, speak of the benefits of bee venom. What is its use?
- Immunomodulating effect - depending on its concentration, bee venom raises (immunostimulation) or depresses the protective forces of the body.
- Antiseptic, bactericidal and anti-inflammatory effects of bee venom persist at a significant dilution (1: 50000).
- Bee venom is a powerful analgesic, which is 50 times stronger than novocaine.
- Liquefies blood (anticoagulant) and reduces the adhesion of red blood cells (antiaggregants).
- Reduces the amount of cholesterol and raises the level of red blood cells.
- Expands blood vessels and reduces their permeability.
- Has a general stimulating effect on many body systems - cardiovascular (normalization of heart rhythm and work of the myocardium), digestive (improves motor and secretion, normalizes liver function), endocrine (normalizes the functions of the thyroid gland and adrenal glands).
- Improves sleep, memory, mood, prevents the appearance of seizures.
What cures bee venom
Bee venom is used to treat the following diseases.
- Neurology . Diseases of the peripheral nervous system of inflammatory nature - neuritis, radiculitis, neuralgia, paralysis and paresis after a stroke, nervous system damage - central and peripheral after trauma, cerebral palsy, infectious, degenerative and age-related lesions of central and peripheral localization.
- Cardiology . Violation of the structure and rhythm of the myocardium, the defeat of the vessels of inflammatory nature.
- Pulmonology . Inflammatory diseases of the bronchi and lungs, bronchial asthma.
- Endocrine diseases and hematology . Diabetes, thyrotoxicosis.
- Rheumatological and infectious diseases.
- Dermatology. Psoriasis, poorly healing wounds and trophic ulcers.
- Other systemic disorders of the body.
Contraindications to the use of bee venom
Despite the fact that bee venom has many useful properties for medical use, all the same it can not be used by everyone. In the following cases, its use is contraindicated:
- intolerance, as an individual feature of the body;
- infectious diseases in acute stage, including venereal, purulent, tuberculosis , osteomyelitis;
- decompensated stages of the disease of the cardiovascular and digestive systems;
- oncopathology of benign and malignant nature, including organic lesions of the central nervous system;
- blood diseases;
- immediately after physical activity and water procedures.
In case of intolerance of bee venom after a bee stings allergic reaction develops.
- At an easy degree, itching and eruptions, high fever, edema and even necrosis at the site of a bite are possible.
- For an average degree, the edema of the face, larynx, respiratory tract spasm is also characteristic.
- Severe degree or anaphylactic shock - laryngeal edema and suffocation, requires the immediate introduction of an antidote - adrenaline, to save a person's life.
How the bee poison is extracted
Bee venom is in high demand, so let's find out how it is formed and how it is mined.
The poison of bees arises as a result of the secretory function - the work of threadlike glands, in the stinging apparatus of the honey bee. It should be noted that the bee has two glands - large and small, one produces an acidic component of the poison, and the other - alkaline, which, when combined, enhance their action. The quantity and quality of the poison depends on the age of the bee, the characteristics of the diet, the time of the year.
The poison in the glands of the bee accumulates with age, reaching the maximum reserves two weeks after its release from the wax cell.
There are several ways how to collect bee venom:
- With ether. A glass jar, in which a sufficient number of adult bees are collected, is covered with a filter paper moistened with ether. Evaporating, he first irritates the bees, and they secrete poison, and then lull them. In the jar poured water and rinsed to dissolve the poison, which was allocated to the bees, then the resulting turbid liquid is filtered and evaporated. The result is a dry poison. Bees after such a procedure should be dried in the sun or indoors and carried to a hive. This method is characterized by shortcomings - low productivity, bees only partially give poison (from 50 to 75 mg of a thousand bees), a sufficiently high level of their death, the resulting poison contains various impurities (impure).
- The bees themselves give poison. This is a humane method in relation to bees. The beehive is placed in a dark room, opening the lid, allowing them to fly out to the window (light source). They are taken one by one with tweezers and pressed by the abdomen to a certain glass or plastic container. The bee releases poison, without damaging the sting, and flies into the hive. The resulting poison quickly acquires a solid structure, it is clean and can be stored for a long time.
- "Milking" as a result of the electric discharge. Physicians have developed a special sieve with an electric discharge, which irritates the bees, makes it sting and give poison. As in the previous method, the bees remain unscathed, and their glands accumulate poison again. At one time an insect can isolate up to 0.3 mg of a valuable product.
There are also methods of forced bite of a bee of fibrous mass or films of animal origin, but they are not widely used due to shortcomings - laboriousness and low efficiency.
Thus, bee venom refers to valuable products of beekeeping and with rational use under the supervision of a doctor has miraculous capabilities. It should also be remembered that this is still a poison that, as a self-medication, can lead to fatal consequences.