Amphetamine (amphetamine) belongs to the category of psychotropic substances that are stimulants of the nervous system. For the first time the drug was synthesized at the end of the XIX century. Initially, it was used as a substitute for ephedrine as a bronchodilator for asthma, and in dietology - to suppress appetite. During World War II, amphetamine and its derivatives were used in the US, British, Japanese and German armies as energy for soldiers. In the early 60s of the 20th century, enough information was accumulated about psychological dependence on the drug and its connection with acute psychosis, as a result of which its turnover was limited.
In Russia, amphetamine is on the list of illicit drugs since 2010. This drug is common among the regulars of nightclubs, and in the United States received the name "cocaine for the poor." Let's find out how amphetamine has an effect on the nervous system, how dangerous a drug is, and what to do when an amphetamine overdose occurs?
Amphetamine and its effects on the body
The effect on the body of amphetamine is caused by its influence primarily on the central and peripheral nervous system. Releasing biological active substances - neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine, the drug has a stimulating effect, enhancing all nervous processes and causing a surge of strength and energy. Also, the drug affects the release of serotonin, with which the resulting feeling of happiness.
Under the influence of a drug, the following occurs:
- blood pressure rises;
- rapid heartbeat;
- pupils dilate;
- increased mental activity;
- decreased appetite;
- mood improves;
- increases motor activity.
A drug addict who has taken a dose feels a state of happiness and contentment, becomes sociable, talkative, he loves the whole world. Sometimes there are colorful hallucinations.
Side effects associated with mental disorder:
- inappropriate behavior;
With long-term use of amphetamine develops addiction - requires a constant increase in dose to achieve the desired effect. Psychic addiction is also very fast, sometimes even after the first drug intake. Physical dependence and withdrawal syndrome are associated with depletion of the nervous system as a result of the constant release of neurotransmitters, insomnia and depletion of internal reserves.
Symptoms of an amphetamine overdose
An overdose of amphetamine can occur as a result of the use of a large single dose by the drug addict or as a result of the so-called marathon, when a repeated dose is taken with a weakening of the narcotic sensations.
The threat to life arises due to excessive stimulation of the cardiovascular system - increased blood pressure, the risk of heart attack and stroke. Also, the negative effect of the drug on the psyche can cause a state of acute psychosis and lead to suicide.
To provide timely assistance with an overdose of amphetamine, you should know the characteristic signs - often the symptoms are similar to an epileptic seizure.
The most pronounced violations:
hallucinations of tactile and visual type;
- temperature rise;
- delirium, obsessive compulsive behavior, monotonous repetitive movements;
- excessive sweating;
- vomiting, heartburn, colic, diarrhea, lack of appetite;
- impaired urination;
- dilated pupils;
- heart rhythm disturbance - tachycardia, arrhythmia;
- pale skin;
- vasospasm and high blood pressure.
Metabolic acidosis, acute renal failure, loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest may also develop.
Aid for amphetamine overdose
First aid for overdose should be provided to those who are present next to the victim, since the addict is usually in inadequate condition.
If he is conscious, it is necessary to take measures to limit his physical activity in order to avoid suicidal situations and violence by the addict. Next, you should call the ambulance team.
Independently helping the victim is unacceptable, as the risk of a probable death is high. If medical assistance is not available, a number of actions can be taken.
- It is possible to remove amphetamine from the body only with the help of abundant drinking, since it is useless to cause vomiting - the drug has long been absorbed from the stomach.
- With the appearance of threatening signs of a disorder of the cardiovascular system, it is necessary to take blood pressure lowering agents and neutralize the effect of adrenaline. In case of an overdose with amphetamines, Anaprilin, Obsidan, Propranolol, Inderal will cope with this.
- There is no antidote for amphetamine, but there are antagonists from the benzodiazepine group that depress the nervous system ( hypnotics ): Valium, Diazepam, Xanax, Librium, and so on. Since they belong to the group of psychotropic drugs, they are available on prescription.
- Cold rubbing is used to lower the temperature.
When mild signs of overdose with amphetamine "Corvalol" will reduce the load on the cardiovascular system and will have a sedative effect. In extreme cases, to achieve the inhibitory effect, you can drink 100–150 grams of vodka.
Symptomatic drugs are used to treat amphetamine overdose.
Amphetamine antagonists that neutralize its effect on the nervous system are drugs of the benzodiazepine series. Barbiturates are used to relieve convulsions, and adrenoblockers are used as blood pressure lowering agents. One of the most commonly used ways to remove amphetamine from the body is forced diuresis, which is used as a standard measure for poisoning.
The recovery period includes the normalization of metabolism in the body, the treatment of exhaustion and the removal of mental dependence.
Consequences of amphetamine use
Amphetamine harm to the body lies primarily in its debilitating action. With prolonged use of the drug to restore is not enough simple rest and good nutrition. A person loses weight greatly, a state of apathy develops. To bring the body to a normal state requires special treatment, which can last for a long time.
A cardiovascular disorder, arrhythmia, hypertension develops, and various complications are possible: heart attack, stroke, aortic dissection.
Develop impotence, vascular spasms, chronic fatigue syndrome. Calcium is excreted from the body, which leads to increased bone fragility and dental problems. Perhaps the depletion of the adrenal glands.
Mixing amphetamines and alcohol adversely affects the liver and kidneys. There is also a high risk of poisoning as a result of taking low-quality street drugs.
Drug addicts with experience use intravenous amphetamine. Because of this, the risk of bloodborne infections and vascular inflammatory diseases increases.
The psychological consequences of taking amphetamines are also dangerous. High risk of developing acute psychosis, disorientation, the emergence of antisocial behavior, suicidal tendencies. The resulting mental disorder is similar in its characteristics to schizophrenia.
Amphetamine is a psychotropic drug that stimulates the nervous system. With an overdose of amphetamine, symptoms of disorders of the cardiovascular and nervous system appear, psychosis and hallucinations occur. With severe poisoning, death can occur due to cardiac arrest, vascular spasm, or as a result of suicidal actions. Therefore, it is necessary to protect the addict from committing inappropriate actions and call an ambulance.