An overdose of amphetamine
Amphetamine (amphetamine) refers to the category of psychotropic substances, which are stimulants of the nervous system. The drug was first synthesized at the end of the XIX century. Initially, it was used as a substitute for ephedrine as a bronchodilator in asthma, and in dietetics for suppressing appetite. During the Second World War, amphetamine and its derivatives were used in the US, British, Japanese and German army as energy for soldiers. In the early 60-ies of the XX century there was enough information about the psychological dependence on the drug and its connection with acute psychoses, as a result of which its turnover was limited.
In Russia, amphetamine is listed in the list of illicit drugs since 2010. This drug is common among regulars of nightclubs, and in the USA it was called "cocaine for the poor". Let's find out how amphetamine acts on the nervous system, how dangerous is taking the drug and what to do with an overdose of amphetamine?
Amphetamine and its effect on the body
The effect on the body of amphetamine is determined by its influence primarily on the central and peripheral nervous system. By releasing active biological substances - neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine, the drug has a stimulating effect, strengthening all nervous processes and causing a surge of energy and energy. Also, the drug affects the release of serotonin, which is associated with an emerging sense of happiness.
Under the influence of the drug, the following occurs:
- blood pressure rises;
- heart rate increases;
- pupils dilate;
- mental activity increases;
- decreased appetite;
- the mood improves;
- increased motor activity.
A drug addict who has taken a dose feels a state of happiness and contentment, becomes sociable, talkative, he loves the whole world. Sometimes there are colorful hallucinations.
Side effects are associated with mental disorders:
- inadequate behavior;
With prolonged use of amphetamine, addiction develops - a constant increase in the dose is required to achieve the desired effect. Also very quickly there is a mental dependence, sometimes even after the first reception of a drug. Physical dependence and withdrawal syndrome are associated with the depletion of the nervous system as a result of a constant release of mediators, insomnia and the depletion of internal reserves.
Symptoms of an overdose of amphetamine
An overdose of amphetamine can occur as a result of the drug use of a large single dose or as a result of a so-called marathon - when a repeated dose is taken with a weakening of narcotic sensations.
The threat to life arises from excessive stimulation of the cardiovascular system - increased blood pressure, risk of heart attack and stroke. Also, the negative effect of the drug on the psyche can cause a state of acute psychosis and lead to suicide.
To provide timely assistance with an overdose of amphetamine, one should know the characteristic signs - often the symptoms are similar to an epileptic fit.
The most pronounced violations:
hallucinations of tactile and visual type;
- temperature increase;
- delirium, obsessive states, monotonous repetitive motions;
- profuse sweating;
- vomiting, heartburn, colic, diarrhea, lack of appetite;
- violation of urination;
- dilated pupils;
- violation of the rhythm of the heart - tachycardia, arrhythmia;
- pallor of the skin;
- spasm of blood vessels and increased blood pressure.
Also, metabolic acidosis, acute renal failure may occur, loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest may occur.
Assistance with an overdose of amphetamine
The first help in case of overdose should be provided to those who are present next to the victim, since the addict is usually in an inadequate condition.
If he is conscious, it is necessary to take measures to restrict his motor activity in order to avoid suicidal situations and violence by the addict. Next, you should call an ambulance.
Independently to help the victim is unacceptable, since the risk of a probable fatal outcome is high. If medical care is not available, a number of actions can be taken.
- It is possible to withdraw amphetamine from the body only with the help of abundant drink, since it is useless to cause vomiting - the drug has already been absorbed from the stomach for a long time.
- When there are threatening signs of a disorder of the cardiovascular system, you need to take funds that lower blood pressure and neutralize the effect of adrenaline. In case of an overdose of amphetamines, Anaprilin, Obzidan, Propranolol, Inderal will cope with this.
- There is no antidote for amphetamine, but there are antagonist drugs from the benzodiazepine group that depress the nervous system ( hypnotics ): Valium, Diazepam, Xanax, Librium and so on. Since they belong to the group of psychotropic drugs, they are given by prescription.
- To reduce the temperature, wipe with cold water.
With slight signs of an overdose of amphetamine, Corvalol will reduce the load on the cardiovascular system and have a sedative effect. In extreme cases, to achieve a braking effect, you can drink 100-150 grams of vodka.
Symptoms are used to treat an overdose of amphetamines.
Amphetamine antagonists, which neutralize its effect on the nervous system, are preparations of the benzodiazepine series. To relieve convulsions used barbiturates, as a means of lowering blood pressure - adrenoblockers. One of the most commonly used ways to remove amphetamine from the body is forced diuresis, used as a standard measure for poisoning.
The recovery period includes the normalization of metabolism in the body, treatment of exhaustion and the removal of mental dependence.
Effects of amphetamine use
The harm of amphetamine for the body is primarily in its debilitating action. With prolonged use of the drug for recovery, it is no longer enough to just rest and have good nutrition. The person strongly loses weight, the state of apathy develops. To bring the body into a normal state requires special treatment, which can last for a long time.
Develops a disorder of cardiovascular activity, arrhythmia, hypertension, various complications are possible: heart attack, stroke, aortic dissection.
Develops impotence, spasms of blood vessels, chronic fatigue syndrome. Calcium is excreted from the body, which leads to increased fragility of bones and problems with teeth. Perhaps, adrenal exhaustion.
Mixing amphetamines and alcohol adversely affects the liver and kidneys. Also the risk of poisoning as a result of reception of poor-quality street drugs is great.
Drug addicts use amphetamine intravenously. Because of this, the risk of infections that are transmitted with blood, inflammatory vascular diseases increases.
The psychological consequences of taking amphetamines are also dangerous. The risk of developing acute psychosis, disorientation, the emergence of antisocial behavior, suicidal tendencies is high. The emerging disorder of the psyche is similar in its features to schizophrenia.
Amphetamine is a psychotropic drug that stimulates the nervous system. In case of an overdose of amphetamine, symptoms of a disorder of the cardiovascular and nervous system appear, psychoses and hallucinations occur. With severe poisoning, death may occur due to cardiac arrest, vasospasms, or as a result of suicidal actions. Therefore, it is necessary to protect the addict from committing inadequate actions and to call an ambulance.