What to do in case of poisoning (overdose) with antibiotics
An overdose of antibiotics usually occurs by chance and more often it happens in children. This occurs when the wrong dosage of the drug for various reasons. Almost all medicines prescribed for children are calculated per kilogram of weight. Therefore, if antibiotics are taken without a doctor's prescription, including in adults, the lack of necessary knowledge can lead to negative consequences of such self-treatment.
Tablets can be confused, children find a first-aid kit and, seeing a bubble with “beautiful balls”, can eat them, someone is too lazy to see a doctor and self-medicate - there are a lot of reasons for poisoning with antibiotics. Therefore, let's talk in this article about how to recognize poisoning with antibacterial drugs, what to do at home in such cases, how it is treated and what the consequences of such intoxication are.
Symptoms of antibiotic poisoning
Antibacterial agents are divided into several groups of drugs. Each of them in large doses has a toxic effect on different organs. Therefore, in antibiotic poisoning, the symptoms will be determined by which category the medicine belongs to.
General toxic reaction
The general toxic reaction occurs as a complication during the treatment of an infectious-inflammatory process, when the administration of a large dose of antibiotic, which may not exceed the maximum allowable, leads to the mass death of pathogenic bacteria.
As a result, many toxins enter the bloodstream, from which all organs are affected to varying degrees. First of all, the weakest are affected, including those who have been exposed to chronic diseases.
With antibiotic intoxication, the general symptoms will be as follows:
- high temperature up to 39–40˚;
- headache, chills, muscle pain;
- nausea, vomiting;
- drops in blood pressure;
- heart palpitations;
- joint pain;
- confused consciousness, nonsense.
Toxic kidney damage
With an overdose of antibiotics, symptoms of kidney damage are observed due to the administration of large doses of sulfonamides, aminoglycosides. There is renal failure, one of the manifestations of which is a decrease in the amount of urine, up to its absence, and a feeling of thirst.
Toxic liver damage
With an overdose of tetracycline, toxic hepatitis occurs. The following symptoms are characteristic:
- yellowness of the skin;
- pain in the right hypochondrium of an intense and persistent nature.
Manifestations of non-infectious otitis occur during intoxication with aminoglycosides. Symptoms of non-infectious otitis media are as follows:
- perhaps the appearance of acute pain, tinnitus;
- sensations of congestion;
- hearing loss.
Stages of treatment.
- Prevention of absorption of the drug in the digestive tract is carried out by assigning sorbents and laxatives. Slow down the absorption and enveloping drink: kissels, jelly, a suspension of starch with water, milk. Since antibiotics are soluble in water, enveloping agents containing fats will be effective. The first stage is fully possible only when the victim is conscious.
- Forced diuresis. The method is based on the drip of a large amount of fluid, and then diuretics. From solutions using electrolytes and agents that improve the rheological properties of blood. The latter have a positive effect on the renal blood flow, which is very important for the effectiveness of treatment. All this is done in order to flush out toxins from the blood. With the development of renal failure using other methods of treatment. Drip liquid is contraindicated in violation of the activity of the heart.
- Based on the indications, hemosorption, plasmapheresis, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis are performed.
- In case of poisoning with antibiotics, treatment is further carried out in accordance with the prevailing symptoms. Carry out cardiovascular support, correction of disturbed functions of the internal organs and the restoration of homeostasis.
First aid for overdose with child antibiotics
Well, if you know for sure that it is precisely an overdose of antibiotics in a child. However, in practice, when they catch a child with a first-aid kit it is often impossible to say for sure what he managed to swallow and how much. Therefore, to assess the degree of danger of the situation is not easy.
If antibiotic poisoning occurs, then what to do? The first and most important thing is to quickly calm down and pull yourself together. Because in a panic, a person loses the ability to think adequately and can do something silly. Experiences still will not help correct the situation.
- The first step: try to induce vomiting by pressing on the root of the tongue. One - two attempts and all, proceed to the next step. Vomiting is possible only in the presence of consciousness.
- The second step: if there is any sorbent on hand, you need to drink it. If not, then do not waste time searching and go to the next step.
- The third step: be sure to call an ambulance.
- The fourth step: whether to make the child or an adult drink as much water as possible - drink, drink and drink again, until it overflows and causes vomiting. We do this while the ambulance is on.
In the future, what to do when overdose with antibiotics, the doctor decides.
Consequences of antibiotic overdose
In case of overdose with antibiotics, the consequences in case of timely treatment are mostly favorable. In rare cases, with the development of acute renal and hepatic insufficiency, residual effects may occur, which are manifested by impaired functioning of these organs. In half of the cases there is a complete restoration of the function without any consequences. With damage to the organ of hearing, recovery is possible, completely. In some cases, hearing is reduced.
Symptoms, therapeutic tactics and consequences of poisoning with antibacterial drugs are very individual and are determined by the dose of the substance taken, its type, the initial state of the body and the timeliness of therapeutic measures.