Overdose of marijuana
Marijuana is a derivative of cannabis (cannabis). The main active substances are cannabinoids - these are compounds that have a psychotropic effect. Other names of the drug: hashish, anasha, ganja.
Grass is smoked, breathed in pairs, hash oil is consumed inside. The latter method most often leads to an overdose of marijuana, as cannabis oil is added to pastries. You can put an excess amount of the drug in the product or eat too much. Since the problem is urgent, we will talk about the signs, consequences of poisoning and methods of first aid.
The effect of marijuana on the body
Drug activity is determined by the content of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). The threshold dose is 50 mg / kg of body weight. Signs of intoxication appear when using 150-200 mg. THC in a dose of 300-400 mg causes confusion and hallucinations. Symptoms of overdose appear if the dose is exceeded at least 2 times. The maximum concentration of marijuana in the blood is reached after 1 hour and 10 minutes. The action lasts up to 6 hours, depending on the method of using marijuana and the amount of THC in it.
THC enters the bloodstream where it binds to plasma proteins or is delivered to the cells. First of all, marijuana affects the brain. Hemp poisoning is the result of changes in the biochemical and metabolic processes in the body. This disrupts the synthesis of RNA, DNA, proteins. The activity of cells changes, some functions of the body are suppressed: mental processes are disturbed, physical activity changes, and mental disorders are characteristic. In addition, cannabinoids stimulate the production of serotonin: mood improves, euphoria appears.
The mechanism of action of THC is to inhibit the formation, release and destruction of acetylcholine - a neurotransmitter involved in neuromuscular transmission, plays a leading role in the parasympathetic nervous system that regulates the work of vital organs, especially the heart. Cannabinoids contribute to an increase in heart rate, provoke an increase in blood pressure, pain may occur in the region of the heart. Sometimes taking the first dose with appropriate comorbid conditions can result in a hypertensive crisis.
In violation of the formation of acetylcholine, the work of other organs is also disturbed: the lungs, the digestive tract, the salivary glands. The innervation of the iris is impaired. When using large doses, all effects are multiplied.
Death from an overdose of marijuana is theoretically possible. But for this you need to use a dose of 40,000 times higher than that which causes narcotic intoxication, therefore, to die from marijuana is unrealistic.
Signs of a Marijuana Overdose
The symptoms of marijuana poisoning are quite specific and can appear a few minutes or hours after using the drug.
Suspected overdose can be based on the following symptoms:
- wide pupils, no reaction to light;
- redness of the face;
- dry mucous membranes;
- increased appetite;
- heart palpitations - heart rate over 100 beats per minute;
- high blood pressure;
- heart pain may occur;
- possible shaking in the body and convulsions;
- feeling hot or chill;
- acute psychosis (delirium): blurred consciousness, anxiety, fear, obsessive states, delusions, hallucinations, disorientation in time;
- neurological changes: difficulty speaking and thinking, sweeping movements of limbs;
- disorders of consciousness: stunning, when a person hardly reacts to external stimuli;
- Sopor is a pathological dream.
Such a state may persist for more than one hour. Sometimes a person wakes up after a few days.
Officially, there are no data on deaths as a result of marijuana overdose, but some researchers point to a fatal outcome in young people who used cannabis who experienced arrhythmia (atrial fibrillation) with the formation of blood clots and the subsequent development of myocardial infarction.
Do not forget that inadequate state can cause suicide.
First Aid for Marijuana Overdose
If there is an overdose from the use of marijuana, then you need to take a number of actions.
- The victim must be calmed down, talking to him.
- The environment should be calm: to exclude loud, harsh sounds, you can turn on slow relaxing music.
- Provide fresh air: open the vents, unbutton the clothes.
- When poisoning from smoking marijuana well helps strong tea with added sugar or honey.
- If you feel the heat, put a wet cold towel on your forehead, sprinkle your face and head with cool water.
- If the drug is ingested with food, it is necessary to wash the stomach, give activated charcoal.
- In the absence of consciousness, make every effort to return it: to brake, rub ears, you can pinch.
- An unconscious person should be laid to the side.
In any case, you need to call an ambulance. To relieve excessive arousal, the doctor injects Haloperidol. The necessary measures are being taken to maintain the activity of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. In case of severe poisoning, hospitalization in the narcological department and hemosorption may be required.
In the case of an overdose of marijuana, a person should not be left alone until he leaves this state.
Consequences of marijuana overdose
- After the effect of the drug ends, with its long use, some time remains depressed, depressive, irritable. Significantly, but temporarily memory deteriorates, decreases intelligence. Over time, mental disorders become more resistant up to the development of schizophrenia, with a predisposition to it.
- Suffering heart. With prolonged use, myocardial dystrophy and rhythm disturbances develop.
- Suffering from the liver, which accumulates a narcotic substance.
- Reproductive function is impaired: the potency of men decreases.
- When smoking cannabis, lungs are affected, which is reflected in the development of chronic bronchitis, an increase in the airiness of the lung tissue (emphysema) and malignant tumors.
Despite the fact that some people deny the emergence of physical dependence in the use of cannabis - it happens. Addiction is formed after months, sometimes years of regular smoking marijuana or taking the drug inside.
Summing up, it is worth noting that despite the seeming harmlessness of marijuana, the consequences of its use are still there. Not only physical but also severe mental illnesses that are difficult to treat develop. However, if an overdose of cannabis happens, such people need help. And we can give this help.