First aid for various types of poisoning

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первая помощь при отравлениях In case of poisoning with any poisons, it is very important to provide first aid in a timely manner. Each poisonous substance has its own mechanism of action, so first aid may vary significantly.

In any case, if poisoning you need to call an ambulance!

If you are not sure what exactly caused the poisoning, proceed according to the following general scheme.

  1. Break contact with poison.
  2. If the substance got into the stomach - drink salted water and provoke vomiting, then take in enterosorbents.
  3. Call an ambulance. Even if hospitalization is not required, they will help you assess the condition of the victim and give you the necessary recommendations.

Important! Watch your breathing and pulse. With severe poisoning, cardiac arrest or cessation of breathing is possible. In this case, you need to proceed with resuscitation .

In the event that you know the type of poisonous substance, then before the arrival of the doctor, be guided by the instructions below.

First aid for poisoning with poisonous gases

The most common type is domestic gas poisoning. In second place are poisoning in case of accidents at work.

  1. вывести пострадавшего на свежий воздух Provide fresh air: take the victim out of the room or open windows and doors.
  2. Provide free breathing for what to unbutton clothes, loosen a tie, etc.
  3. Give a gargle with a weak soda solution.
  4. In severe cases, make artificial respiration and closed heart massage.
  5. Put in bed, wrap, before the arrival of doctors to ensure abundant drinking to accelerate the removal of poison from the body.

First aid for food poisoning

  1. при пищевом отравлении вызвать рвоту To induce vomiting. If it is present without intervention, you still need to wash the stomach - drink about a liter of salted water and vomit. You can also use a weak pink solution of potassium permanganate. Important! If the victim is unconscious, it is impossible to induce vomiting or to give him water.
  2. For severe diarrhea, take “Smektu” - 2 sachets and then 4 hours later according to the instructions.
  3. If nausea and vomiting prevail, drink enterosorbent: “Polyphepan”, “Enterosgel” or “ Polysorb ”. If there is only activated carbon at hand, then take it (at the rate of 1-2 tablets per 10 kg of weight), crush and drink 100 ml of water.
  4. In addition to enterosorbents, take a coating: a solution of egg white in water (1: 1), a decoction of flaxseed, starch jelly.
  5. To replenish the fluid, 1–1.5 hours after taking the adsorbents, drink Regidron or its analogues, and in their absence, lightly salted water.

First aid for poisoning with pesticides

ядохимикаты When poisoning by means of the chemical industry (except alkalis and acids), agricultural poisons - insecticides, herbicides and others, if they are in the stomach, do the following.

  1. Induce vomiting, flush the stomach with a weak-pink solution of potassium permanganate (8-10 glasses).
  2. Drink saline laxative (Glauber's salt, magnesia). Attention! Oil preparations (castor oil, etc.) cannot be used as a laxative, since many toxic chemicals of this group dissolve well in fats.
  3. Call an ambulance and be sure to tell the name of the poison and the active substance (indicated on the package).
  4. Drink plenty of water.

First aid for acid and alkali poisoning

Poisoning with concentrated acids and alkalis is accompanied by burns of the mucous membrane and severe pains in the esophagus and stomach.

  1. полоскать рот водой при отравлении кислотами и щёлочами Rinse your mouth and throat with water. Vomiting can not cause!
  2. Immediately call an ambulance, as indicated gastric lavage through a probe.
  3. In case of acid poisoning, mucous broths, milk, egg white, and vegetable oil are given to the victim. Important! In case of poisoning with carbolic acid and its compounds (Lysol, phenol) it is impossible to give milk and fats.
  4. To weaken the action of acid, they give to drink lime water or burnt magnesia. You can not take soda and other weak alkali - it will cause a violent reaction in the stomach.
  5. When alkaline poisoning drink any mucous fluid and 2% citric acid solution (in small portions every 5 minutes).
  6. Laxative can not be given, if necessary, before the arrival of the doctor to do artificial respiration.
  7. To reduce the pain on the stomach area put ice.

First aid for drug poisoning

  1. при отравлении лекарствами выпить сорбент To induce vomiting.
  2. Take enterosorbent: "Enterosgel", "Polysorb MP", "Smektu" or activated charcoal.
  3. Drink plenty of water.

Most drugs have their own antidotes, so when you go to a doctor, it is advisable to give the name of the medicine and the dose that the person took. Acceptance of enterosorbents for acute poisoning:

  • "Enterosgel" - 2 tablespoons;
  • "Polysorb MP" - 3 tablespoons;
  • "Polyphepan" - 2 tablespoons;
  • Smekta - 2 sachets;
  • activated carbon - 1-2 tablets per 10 kg of body weight.

First aid for alcohol poisoning

  1. алкогольное отравление To provoke vomiting and flush the stomach by drinking 5–6 glasses of warm boiled water or a weak soda solution.
  2. Take any enterosorbent.
  3. Give breathing ammonia.
  4. Drink plenty of water, it is advisable to acidify the water with lemon juice or ascorbic acid.
  5. Take a saline laxative (magnesium sulfate 4-6 teaspoons to 1 liter of water).
  6. In severe cases, do artificial respiration and closed heart massage.
  7. To stimulate the functions of the heart and respiration, it is recommended to drink strong brewed tea and coffee.

Important! When alcohol poisoning can not take paracetamol and drugs based on it ("Citramon" and others), it is better to drink aspirin.

First aid for poisons on the skin

  1. помощь при попадании яда на кожу Remove the venom from the skin with a swab.
  2. Wash this place with plenty of cool water. Rinse off the poisons with soap or a weak soda solution.
  3. If the poison got on the clothes - remove it.
  4. If swallowed, rinse with water.

First aid in case of contact with skin or acids.

  1. If the chemical gets on your clothes, remove them immediately.
  2. Rinse the injury site under running water for at least 10 minutes. Water should be warm.
  3. In case of acid contact with the skin, wash the damaged area with a solution of weak alkali: 2% soda, lime water.
  4. In case of alkali contact, wash with 2% solution of weak acid - boric, citric, ascorbic, vinegar.
  5. In case of severe injuries, apply a sterile dressing and consult a doctor.
  6. In case of contact with the mucous membranes of the eyes, rinse with water for 20–30 minutes, drip anti-inflammatory eye drops (sodium sulfacyl). If the poison is an irritant, apply a bandage and consult an optometrist.

First aid for respiratory depression and (or) cardiac activity

  1. непрямой массаж сердца и искусственное дыхание When poisoning control pulse and respiration. Normally, the pulse is 60–70 beats, breathing - 20–25 respiratory movements per minute. With pain syndrome, these indicators can increase by 1.5-2 times.
  2. In the absence of a pulse, an indirect heart massage is performed: the victim is placed with his back on a hard surface, his hands are placed one on top of the other in the heart area and rhythmically press his chest with his straight arms (approximately 80 times per minute). The presence of the pulse to check every minute.
  3. In the absence of respiration, artificial respiration is performed. Clean the mouth and nose of foreign objects (vomit, etc.). Slightly tilt the victim's head, hold the nose with one hand, hold the lower jaw with the other. Inhale “mouth to mouth” for 1 second, while the victim’s chest should be lifted. When combined with cardiac resuscitation, make 2 breaths and press the chest 30 times. If only artificial respiration is done, then keep the rhythm 1 breath every 3-4 seconds.
  4. With a weakening of the heart or loss of consciousness of the victim lay on one side, making sure that the tongue does not sink to the larynx.
  5. Give drugs stimulating vasomotor and respiratory centers of the brain - analeptics (caffeine, camphor, bemegride, strychnine).

Restoring posture: the victim is placed on the right side, his head turned to the side. The right arm is bent in the elbow and placed under the head. The left leg is bent at the knee.

First aid for carbon monoxide poisoning

отравление угарным газом Carbon monoxide (carbon dioxide) gas poisoning more often occurs during fires or when exhaust gases accumulate in a confined space.

  1. Remove the victim from the zone of the gas, to ensure the flow of oxygen.
  2. Ensure that clothing does not interfere with breathing.
  3. Apply cold on the head and chest.
  4. If there is a loss of consciousness, give a smell of ammonia.
  5. Watch for breathing, in case of stopping, perform artificial respiration.
  6. If the victim is conscious - give plenty of drink, better tea or coffee.

First aid for mushroom poisoning

  1. грибы Re-flush the stomach, giving to drink water or a weak solution of potassium permanganate, and causing vomiting.
  2. Take laxatives. You can not stop diarrhea, as this helps to remove the poison from the intestines.
  3. Plentiful drink, the reducing solutions are recommended ("Regidron", "Hydrovit").
  4. Acceptance of any sorbents, activated carbon.
  5. Wrap up, warm the heaters.
  6. Be sure to consult a doctor, as many mushrooms have a remote effect in time. Need urgent hospitalization.

First aid for botulism

Toxin Botulin - a very potent poison. Therefore, in case of suspected poisoning with canned food and long-term storage products, immediately seek medical help! While the ambulance is driving, take the following measures.

  1. Drink plenty of water with baking soda (2 tablespoons per liter), induce vomiting. Repeat several times.
  2. Take a saline laxative (magnesia - 1 ampoule per half liter of water, Glauber's salt).
  3. After 30 minutes, if an ambulance team has not arrived by this time, give the victim any enterosorbent.
  4. When cardiac arrest and / or respiratory arrest occur, perform resuscitation until function is restored or an ambulance arrives.

When rendering first aid, it is important to first secure yourself and the victim from the effects of the poison, then assess the condition of the patient and only then proceed to measures to provide first aid.

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