First aid for different types of poisoning
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When poisoning with any poisons, it is very important to provide first aid in a timely manner. Every poisonous substance has its own mechanism of action, therefore, pre-medical care can differ substantially.
In any case, you should call an ambulance for poisoning!
If you are not sure what exactly caused the poisoning, proceed according to the following general scheme.
- Interrupt contact with the poison.
- If the substance has got into the stomach - drink salted water and provoke vomiting, then take enterosorbents.
- Call the ambulance. Even if you do not need hospitalization, you will be helped to assess the condition of the victim and give the necessary recommendations.
Important! Watch your breathing and pulse. With severe poisoning, cardiac arrest or cessation of breathing is possible. In this case, you need to start resuscitation .
In the event that you know the type of poisonous substance, then before the arrival of a doctor, be guided by the instruction below.
First aid in poisoning with poisonous gases
The most common form is poisoning with household gas. On the second place are poisoning in case of accidents at work.
- Ensure an influx of fresh air: take the victim out of the room or open windows and doors.
- Provide free breath for what to unbutton clothes, loosen the tie, etc.
- Give rinse throat with a weak solution of soda.
- In severe cases, do artificial respiration and closed heart massage.
- Lay in bed, wrap up, before the arrival of doctors to provide a generous drink to accelerate the removal of poison from the body.
First aid for food poisoning
- Induce vomiting. If it is present and without intervention, you still need to rinse the stomach - drink about a liter of salted water and wring it. You can also use a slightly pink solution of potassium permanganate. Important! If the victim is unconscious, then induce vomiting or water it with water.
- With expressed diarrhea, take "Smektu" - 2 sachets and then after 4 hours according to the instructions.
- If nausea and vomiting predominate, drink enterosorbent: Polyphepanum, Enterosgel, or Polysorb . If at hand only activated charcoal, then take it (from the calculation of 1-2 tablets per 10 kg of weight), crush and drink 100 ml of water.
- In addition to enterosorbents take enveloping: egg white solution in water (1: 1), decoction of flaxseed, starch jelly.
- To replenish the liquid after 1-1,5 hours after taking adsorbents, drink "Regidron" or its analogs, in their absence - slightly salted water.
First aid for poisoning with pesticides
When poisoning means of chemical industry (except for alkalis and acids), agricultural poisons - insecticides, herbicides and other, when they get into the stomach, you need to do the following.
- Vomit, rinse the stomach with a slightly pink solution of potassium permanganate (8-10 glasses).
- Drink salt laxative (Glauber's salt, magnesia). Attention! As a laxative, oil preparations (castor oil and others) can not be used, since many of the pesticides in this group dissolve well in fats.
- Call an ambulance and always say the name of the poison and the active ingredient (indicated on the package).
- Abundant drink.
First aid for poisoning with acids and alkalis
Poisoning with concentrated acids and alkalis is accompanied by burns of the mucous membrane and severe pain in the esophagus and stomach.
- Rinse mouth and mouth with water. Vomiting can not be caused!
- Immediately call an ambulance, as shown by gastric lavage through the probe.
- When poisoning with acid, the victim is given mucous broths, milk, egg white, vegetable oil. Important! When poisoning with carbolic acid and its compounds (lysol, phenol), milk and fats should not be given.
- To reduce the effect of acid, they give you to drink lime water or burnt magnesia. Do not take soda and other weak alkali - this will cause a violent reaction in the stomach.
- In case of alcohol poisoning, drink any mucus fluid and 2% citric acid solution (in small portions every 5 minutes).
- Laxative can not be given, if necessary before the arrival of a doctor to make artificial respiration.
- To reduce the pain syndrome on the stomach area, put ice.
First aid for poisoning with medicines
- Induce vomiting.
- Take enterosorbent: Enterosgel, Polysorb MP, Smectu or activated charcoal.
- Abundant drink.
Most drugs have their own antidotes, so when calling a doctor it is advisable to give the name of the medicine and the dose that the victim took. Reception of enterosorbents for acute poisoning:
- Enterosgel - 2 tablespoons;
- "Polysorb MP" - 3 tablespoons;
- "Polyphepan" - 2 tablespoons;
- Smecta - 2 sachets;
- activated carbon - 1-2 tablets per 10 kg of body weight.
First aid for alcohol poisoning
- Provoke vomiting and rinse the stomach by drinking 5-6 glasses of warm boiled water or a weak solution of soda.
- Take any enterosorbent.
- Let me breathe in liquid ammonia.
- Abundant drink, it is desirable to acidify the water with lemon juice or ascorbic acid.
- Take saline laxative (magnesium sulfate 4-6 teaspoons per 1 liter of water).
- In severe cases, do artificial respiration and closed heart massage.
- To stimulate the functions of the heart and breathing, it is recommended to drink strongly brewed tea and coffee.
Important! When alcohol poisoning can not take paracetamol and drugs based on it ("Citramon" and others), it is better to drink aspirin.
The first help in getting poisons into the skin
- Remove the poison from the skin with a swab.
- Wash this place with a copious amount of cool water. Oily poisons should be washed off with soap or a mild soda solution.
- If the poison has got on clothes - to remove it.
- If swallowed, rinse with water.
First aid for acids or alkalis on the skin.
- If the chemical has got on clothes - immediately remove it.
- Rinse the area of damage under running water for at least 10 minutes. The water should be warm.
- In case of contact with skin acid wash the damaged area with a solution of weak alkali: 2% of soda, lime water.
- In case of contact with alkali - rinse with 2% solution of weak acid - boric, lemon, ascorbic, vinegar.
- In case of severe damage, apply a sterile bandage and consult a doctor.
- If you get into the mucous membranes of the eyes - rinse with water for 20-30 minutes, drip anti-inflammatory eye drops (sulfacil sodium). If the poison is irritating - apply a bandage and contact the oculist.
First aid in the suppression of respiration and (or) heart activity
- When poisoning control the pulse and breath. Normally, the pulse is 60-70 strokes, respiration - 20-25 respiratory movements per minute. With pain syndrome, these indicators can increase in 1,5-2 times.
- In the absence of a pulse, an indirect heart massage is performed: the victim is placed with his back on a firm surface, palms are placed one on top of the other in the heart area and with his hands, rhythmically pressing on the chest (approximately 80 times per minute). Check the pulse every minute.
- In the absence of breathing, ventilate the lungs. Clean your mouth and nose of foreign objects (vomit, etc.). Slightly tilt the victim's head, hold one's nose in one hand, the other hold the lower jaw. Take a breath "from mouth to mouth" for 1 second, while the victim's chest should be raised. When combined with cardiac resuscitation, 2 inhalations are made and 30 times pressed on the thorax. If only artificial respiration is done, then take a rhythm of 1 breath every 3-4 seconds.
- When the activity of the heart is weakened or the consciousness is lost, the victim is put to one side, making sure that the tongue does not sink to the larynx.
- To give medicines stimulating the vasomotor and respiratory centers of the brain - analeptics (caffeine, camphor, bemegrid, strychnine).
Restoring pose: the victim is put on his right side, his head is turned to the side. The right arm is bent at the elbow and placed under the head. The left leg is bent at the knee.
First aid for carbon monoxide poisoning
Poisoning carbon monoxide (carbon dioxide) gas often occurs during fires or in the accumulation of exhaust gases in a confined space.
- Take the victim out of the gas zone, ensure the flow of oxygen.
- Ensure that clothing does not interfere with breathing.
- Apply cold on the head and chest.
- If there is a loss of consciousness, give sniff ammonia.
- Monitor breathing, if necessary, hold artificial respiration.
- If the victim is conscious - give plenty of drink, preferably tea or coffee.
First aid for poisoning with mushrooms
- Repeatedly wash the stomach, giving water or a weak solution of potassium permanganate, and inducing vomiting.
- Take laxatives. Do not stop diarrhea, as this helps to remove the poison from the intestine.
- Abundant drink, recommended restoring solutions ("Regidron", "Hydrovit").
- Acceptance of any sorbents, you can activated charcoal.
- Wrap up, warm with warmers.
- Be sure to consult a doctor, since many mushrooms have a long-term effect. Urgent hospitalization is needed.
First aid in botulism
Toxin botulinum is a very potent poison. Therefore, if you suspect poisoning with canned food and long-term storage products, immediately seek medical help! While the ambulance rides, take the following measures.
- Drink plenty of water with baking soda (2 tablespoons per liter), induce vomiting. Repeat several times.
- Take saline laxative (magnesia - 1 ampoule per half liter of water, Glauber's salt).
- After 30 minutes, if by that time the ambulance did not arrive, give any enterosorbent to the victim.
- When cardiac arrest and / or breathing, carry out resuscitation before restoring the functions or before the arrival of an ambulance.
When providing first aid, it is important first to protect yourself and the victim from the effects of poison, then assess the patient's condition and only then proceed with measures to provide first aid.