Signs of all types of drug poisoning and first aid

наркотическое отравление According to the World Health Organization, narcotic drug poisoning in Russia today takes second place after alcohol intoxication. The toxic effect of such drugs is due to a decrease in the excitability of the cough and respiratory centers of the brain, a depressant effect on the central nervous system, as well as the stimulation of the vagal nerve.

Depending on the method of administration and the dose of the drug, the rate of development of the drug poisoning depends. For example, if, when administered intravenously, the effect of the drug develops within the first minutes, while with the intramuscular or enteral route of administration, the effect may develop within the first two hours.

Classification of narcotic drugs

To date, narcotic drugs are classified as follows.

  • Героин и шприц Opiates: natural ( Codeine , Omnopon, Morphine), synthetic (Medintil, Promedol), semi-synthetic (heroin).
  • Hemp preparations: hashish, marijuana, oil.
  • Cocaine: cocaine leaves, coca paste, crackers.
  • Amphetamines and non-amphetamines: Pervitin, Ephedrine.
  • Hallucinogens: synthetic (LSD), natural (poisoning by poisonous mushrooms).
  • Hypnotic and sedatives: barbiturates (hypnotics - Phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (sedatives - Seduxen, Nozepam).
  • Other drugs: Diphenhydramine, Pipolfen, Clophelin.

Opiate poisoning

After the introduction of this group of drugs comes the feeling of a tide of warm waves to the head. At the time of intoxication addicts are peaceful, drowsiness comes very quickly. After partial elimination of the drug, an abstinence syndrome (mental disorders arising after taking a narcotic drug) is observed, which lasts for about three weeks. This period is characterized by irritability, aggression, muscle pain, cramps, digestive disorders. The addiction to this group of drugs usually develops after a month of regular use. The first signs of opiate poisoning are:

  • опиаты constriction of the pupils (miosis);
  • dry, pale skin;
  • decrease in body temperature (below 36 degrees Celsius);
  • burning and itching of the frontal region and the tip of the nose;
  • dysarthria (impaired speech);
  • ataxia (impaired coordination);
  • total hypesthesia (decreased sensitivity);
  • shallow, irregular breathing;
  • bradycardia (decrease in heart rate).

The opium addict differs from others in indifference to the environment, apathy, noncommunity. Most often, these people look older than their years.

The group of such drugs in the first place inhibits the respiratory center, so with an overdose, breathing is noticeably slowed down, until its absence. Therefore, in the event of a narcotic poisoning, first aid is necessary.

First aid for opiate poisoning

  • активированный уголь call an ambulance crew, indicating signs of drug poisoning;
  • it is necessary to lay the victim on one side, bending one knee (for a stable position);
  • provide the victim with fresh air, free the chest and collar area from pressure clothing (if any);
  • wash the stomach with a weak salt raster (if the victim is conscious);
  • give enterosorbents (activated carbon);
  • with loss of consciousness, stupor, inhibition - bring cotton wool dipped in liquid ammonia;
  • in life-threatening conditions - lack of breathing and pulse in the carotid artery, it is necessary to proceed to resuscitation - an indirect heart massage and artificial ventilation of the lungs using the “mouth-to-mouth” method.

Cocaine poisoning

Preparations of this group are obtained from coca leaves. Today, in medical practice, such drugs are the most powerful analgesic in the last stage of cancer. It has a stimulating effect on the central nervous system. In contrast, the effects of morphine do not cause sedation and respiratory depression. The main signs of drug intoxication with cocaine are:

  • отравление кокаином mydriasis (dilated pupils);
  • general weakness;
  • tachycardia (increased heart rate);
  • dizziness;
  • dyspnea at rest;
  • delirium (visual and auditory hallucinations);
  • disorientation in the surrounding space.

According to the clinical picture, people taking cocaine coincide with mentally ill patients. At the time of drug intoxication it seems to the patient that he is surrounded by a large number of people or small animals (insects). And some of them are opposed to him, while others feel sorry for him, empathize with him. Therefore, in such moments, patients build long-term monologues, they can attack a casual passer-by.

First aid for cocaine poisoning

The first aid in the poisoning of cocaine drugs is:

  • call an ambulance;
  • flush the stomach with a weak saline solution;
  • give enterosorbents (activated carbon);
  • lay the patient sideways (to avoid aspiration of vomit);
  • further treatment will be carried out in the hospital (in the intensive care unit).

In case of severe hyperthermia (overheating of the body), antipyretic agents are prescribed (Paracetamol), in case of arterial hypertension sodium nitroprusside is injected, sedatives are injected, connected to oxygen and a daily monitor is installed to continuously monitor the patient's condition.

Cannabinoid poisoning

марихуана When using this group of drugs, the state of a person is constantly changing. Initially, one can observe a distinct euphoria, which abruptly gives way to dysphoria (anxious longing). Marijuana has both a sedative and a stimulating effect on the human body. The main symptoms of cannabinoid narcotic poisoning are:

  • mood swings;
  • tachycardia (increased heart rate);
  • high blood pressure;
  • thirst, dry mouth;
  • mydriasis (dilated pupils).

First aid for cannabinoid poisoning

First aid in case of poisoning with these narcotic substances should include:

  • call an ambulance brigade;
  • lay the patient on the side;
  • when taking the drug orally (hashish), wash the stomach with a weak saline, induce vomiting;
  • give adsorbing agents;
  • forced diuresis (furosemide);
  • Give hot strong tea to drink.

Hallucinogenic poisoning

Psychodisleptics (LSD, Ipomoea seeds, Ergotamine, nutmeg) are substances of this group. The danger of this group is its availability. So, if LSD drugs are banned, then hallucinogenic mushrooms are ubiquitous. Such mushrooms can manifest themselves in different ways (from minor discomfort and diarrhea to the suffocating effect). It is accepted to distinguish the following symptoms of narcotic poisoning with hallucinogenic substances:

  • тремор рук increased heart rate;
  • high blood pressure;
  • mydriasis (dilated pupils);
  • tremor of hands;
  • dry skin;
  • euphoria;
  • disorientation;
  • auditory and visual hallucinations;
  • lack of coordination of movements.

First aid for hallucinogenic poisoning

First aid in case of poisoning with hallucinogenic substances includes:

  • call an ambulance crew and point out signs of drug poisoning;
  • wash the stomach with a weak salt raster, induce vomiting;
  • give enterosorbents (activated carbon);
  • further therapy is carried out in the intensive care unit of the hospital
  • be ready to conduct resuscitation before the arrival of an ambulance.

Psychostimulant poisoning

The psychostimulants include a large range of drugs that have a stimulating effect on physical and mental activity. But with the use of large doses of such drugs occur poisoning. The first stage is characterized by increased emotional stress, a person is talkative, aggression is possible. Further, signs of intoxication prevail:

  • головная боль nausea;
  • vomiting;
  • headache;
  • diarrhea.

With a severe degree of poisoning, there is a gradual extinction of the patient’s consciousness, the body temperature decreases, blood pressure drops, and convulsions are possible. In this case, immediate resuscitation care is necessary for the patient.

First aid for overdose psychostimulants

  • call an ambulance;
  • stop drug administration;
  • wash the stomach with a weak salt raster (if the patient is conscious);
  • give enterosorbents (activated carbon);
  • further treatment will be carried out in the hospital.

Poisoning sleeping pills

отравление снотворным For hypnotic drugs are those drugs that under certain conditions contribute to the onset of sleep. With an overdose of these drugs is very quickly fatal.

Clinical picture:

  • oppression of the central nervous system (coma);
  • respiratory depression;
  • pupils initially narrow, then due to oxygen starvation, expand;
  • violation of renal excretory function.

First aid for poisoning with hypnotic drugs

  • call an ambulance brigade;
  • remove poison from the stomach by washing
  • associate toxins with enterosorbents (activated carbon);
  • the introduction of a 2% solution of sodium bicarbonate (in order to reduce the absorption of poison);
  • forced diuresis (furosemide).

Substance abuse

Substance abuse is very similar to drug addiction, its symptoms and possible consequences. The only difference is that the substances used by substance abusers are not on the list of prohibited items. Such substances include gasoline, acetone, glue and many others. There is a high probability of getting used quickly to certain medications for self-treatment (for example, hypnotics). After prolonged use, with withdrawal of such a drug, withdrawal syndrome is observed:

  • токсикомания tremor of the limbs;
  • insomnia;
  • irritability;
  • headache;
  • sweating

When using the usual substances in addicts observed euphoria, a sense of "soaring."

When poisoning observed:

  • nausea;
  • vomiting;
  • headache;
  • staggering gait;
  • speech blurring.

First aid for substance abuse

  • pervaja pomoshh 'pri otravlenii narkotikami ambulance call;
  • the cessation of the introduction of a toxic substance;
  • fresh air access;
  • Further treatment is carried out in the hospital (initially it is necessary to stop the intoxication syndrome, then remove the signs of withdrawal and then correct somatic disorders).

Unfortunately for the past two decades, the level of overdose with various narcotic drugs has grown so much that these conditions can be attributed to the epidemic. The treatment of this contingent of people is not the easiest task. It includes a complex of medical and social events. The implementation of such treatment is fully fraught with moral and material costs, but a positive outcome can not always be achieved.

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