Signs of drug poisoning of all kinds and first aid

наркотическое отравление According to the World Health Organization, poisoning with narcotic drugs in Russia today goes to second place after alcohol intoxication. The toxic effect of such drugs is due to a decrease in the excitability of the cough and respiratory centers of the brain, the depressing effect on the central nervous system, and also the excitation of the vagus nerve.

Depending on the mode of administration and the dose of the drug, the rate of development of drug poisoning depends. For example, if intravenous administration of the drug develops during the first minutes, whereas with intramuscular or enteral route of administration, the effect may develop within the first two hours.

Classification of narcotic drugs

To date, narcotic drugs are classified as follows.

  • Героин и шприц Opiates: natural ( Codeine , Omnupon, Morphine), synthetic (Medintil, Promedol), semi-synthetic (heroin).
  • Preparations from hemp: hashish, marijuana, oil.
  • Cocaine: cocaine leaves, cocaine paste, crack.
  • Amphetamines and non-amphetamines: Pervitine, Ephedrine.
  • Hallucinogens: synthetic (LSD), natural (poisoning with poisonous mushrooms).
  • Hypnotic and sedative drugs: barbiturates (hypnotics - Phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (sedatives - Seduxen, Nozepam).
  • Other narcotic drugs: Diphenhydramine, Pipolphen, Clopheline.

Poisoning with opiates

After the administration of drugs of this group, there comes a sensation of a warm wave surge to the head. At the moment of intoxication drug addicts are peaceful, very quickly, drowsiness comes. After a partial withdrawal of the drug, there is an abstinence syndrome (mental disorders that occur after taking the drug), which lasts for about another three weeks. This period is characterized by irritability, aggression, muscle pains, seizures, digestive disorders. Adapting to this group of drugs usually develops through a month of regular use. The first signs of drug poisoning with opiates are:

  • опиаты narrowing of the pupils (miosis);
  • dry, pale skin;
  • decrease in body temperature (below 36 degrees Celsius);
  • burning and itching of the frontal region and the tip of the nose;
  • dysarthria (speech disturbance);
  • ataxia (impaired coordination of movements);
  • total hypoesthesia (decreased sensitivity);
  • superficial, irregular breathing;
  • bradycardia (reduction of heart rate).

The opium addict differs from others in indifference to the environment, apathy, lack of self-interest. Most often these people look older than their years.

A group of such drugs primarily depresses the respiratory center, therefore, overdose significantly slows down the breath, down to its absence. Therefore, when a drug poisoning occurs, first aid should be provided.

First aid for opiate poisoning

  • активированный уголь call an ambulance team, indicating signs of drug poisoning;
  • lay the injured person on one side, bending one knee (for a stable position);
  • provide fresh air to the victim, release the chest and collar zone from pressing clothing (if any);
  • rinse the stomach with a weak salt raster (if the victim is conscious);
  • give enterosorbents (activated charcoal);
  • at loss of consciousness, deafness, retardation - to bring a cotton wool soaked with ammonia;
  • in life-threatening conditions - lack of breathing and pulse on the carotid artery, it is necessary to start resuscitation - indirect cardiac massage and artificial ventilation of the lungs by the method of "mouth to mouth".

Poisoning with Cocaine

Preparations of this group are obtained from coca leaves. To date, in medical practice, such drugs are the most powerful analgesic in the last stage of cancer. It has a stimulating effect on the central nervous system. In contrast to the effects of morphine do not cause sedation and respiratory depression. The main signs of cocaine intoxication are:

  • отравление кокаином mydriasis (dilated pupils);
  • general weakness;
  • tachycardia (increased heart rate);
  • dizziness;
  • dyspnea at rest;
  • delirium (visual and auditory hallucinations);
  • disorientation in the surrounding space.

People taking cocaine, according to the clinical picture, coincide with mentally ill patients. At the time of drug intoxication, the patient seems to be surrounded by a large number of people or small animals (insects). And some of them are against him, while others feel sorry for him, empathize with him. Therefore, at such times patients build long monologues, they can attack a casual passer-by.

First aid for cocaine poisoning

The first help in drug poisoning cocaine group is:

  • call for an ambulance;
  • rinse the stomach with a weak saline solution;
  • give enterosorbents (activated charcoal);
  • put the patient on its side (to avoid aspiration vomit);
  • further treatment will be carried out in the hospital (in the intensive care unit).

With severe hyperthermia (overheating of the body), antipyretics (Paracetamol) are prescribed, with arterial hypertension, sodium nitroprusside is administered, sedatives are administered, connected to oxygen and a daily monitor is installed to monitor the patient's condition continuously.

Cannabinoid poisoning

марихуана When this group of drugs is used, the human condition is constantly changing. Initially, you can observe a distinct euphoria, which drastically changes to dysphoria (anxiety anguish). Marijuana has both a sedative and stimulating effect on the human body. The main symptoms of drug poisoning in the cannabinoid group are:

  • change of mood;
  • tachycardia (increased heart rate);
  • increased blood pressure;
  • thirst, dry mouth;
  • mydriasis (dilated pupils).

First aid for cannabinoid poisoning

The first aid for poisoning with these narcotic substances should include:

  • call an ambulance;
  • put the patient on one side;
  • when oral drug (hashish) is taken, rinse the stomach with a weak salt raster, induce vomiting;
  • give adsorbing agents;
  • forced diuresis (furosemide);
  • give hot strong tea to drink.

Hallucinogenic poisoning

To the substances of this group are psychodysleptics (LSD, Ipomoea seeds, Ergotamine, nutmeg). The danger of this group is its availability. So, if LSD preparations are banned, then hallucinogenic fungi are common everywhere. Such fungi can manifest themselves in different ways (from minor discomfort and diarrhea to suffocating effect). It is customary to distinguish the following symptoms of drug poisoning with hallucinogenic substances:

  • тремор рук increased heart rate;
  • increased blood pressure;
  • mydriasis (dilated pupils);
  • tremor (trembling) of the hands;
  • dry skin;
  • euphoria;
  • disorientation;
  • auditory and visual hallucinations;
  • violation of coordination of movements.

First aid for hallucinogenic poisoning

First aid for poisoning with hallucinogenic substances includes:

  • call an ambulance and indicate signs of drug poisoning;
  • rinse the stomach with a weak salt raster, induce vomiting;
  • give enterosorbents (activated charcoal);
  • further therapy is carried out in the intensive care hospital
  • be ready to carry out resuscitation before the ambulance arrives.

Poisoning with psychostimulants

Psychostimulants include a large range of drugs that have a stimulating effect on physical and mental activity. But when large doses of such drugs are used, poisoning occurs. The first stage is characterized by increased emotional stress, the person is talkative, aggression is possible. Further, signs of intoxication predominate:

  • головная боль nausea;
  • vomiting;
  • headache;
  • diarrhea.

With a severe degree of such poisoning, a gradual fading of the patient's consciousness is observed, body temperature decreases, blood pressure drops, cramps are possible. In this case, immediate resuscitation is needed for the patient.

First aid in case of overdose with psychostimulants

  • call an ambulance;
  • stop the drug;
  • rinse the stomach with a weak salt raster (if the patient is conscious);
  • give enterosorbents (activated charcoal);
  • further treatment will be conducted in a hospital.

Poisoning with sleeping pills

отравление снотворным The hypnotics include those drugs that, under certain conditions, contribute to the onset of sleep. When an overdose of these drugs very quickly, a lethal outcome occurs.

Clinical picture:

  • oppression of the central nervous system (coma);
  • respiratory depression;
  • the pupils are initially narrow, then expand due to oxygen starvation;
  • violation of excretory function of the kidneys.

First aid for poisoning with sleeping pills

  • call an ambulance;
  • remove poison from the stomach by washing
  • bind toxins with enterosorbents (activated carbon);
  • introduction of 2% sodium bicarbonate solution (to reduce the absorption of poison);
  • forced diuresis (furosemide).

Toxicomania

Toxicomania is very similar to drug addiction with its symptoms and possible consequences. The only difference is that the substances used by the toxic addicts are not listed in the list of prohibited means. These substances include gasoline, acetone, glue and many others. The probability of fast getting used to some medicines at self-treatment (for example, hypnotics) is great. After long-term use with the abolition of such a drug, there is an abstinence syndrome:

  • токсикомания tremor of extremities;
  • insomnia;
  • irritability;
  • headache;
  • sweating.

With the use of familiar substances in toxicants, there is euphoria, a feeling of "hovering".

When poisoning are observed:

  • nausea;
  • vomiting;
  • headache;
  • unsteadiness of gait;
  • blurred speech.

First aid for substance abuse

  • pervaja pomoshh 'pri otravlenii narkotikami call an ambulance;
  • cessation of the introduction of a toxic substance;
  • access of fresh air;
  • further treatment is carried out in a hospital (initially it is necessary to stop intoxication syndrome, then to remove symptoms of abstinence and further to correct somatic disorders).

To the great regret over the past two decades, the level of overdoses with various narcotic drugs has grown so much that these conditions can be attributed to an epidemic. The treatment of this contingent of people is not the easiest task. It includes a complex of medical and social events. Implementation of such treatment is fully associated with moral and material costs, but a positive outcome can not always be achieved.

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