Description of food poisoning of non-microbial origin
Surely every person has ever faced with such problems as poisoning, which causes food intoxication and delivers not only a lot of unpleasant sensations, but also problems for health in general. Food poisoning can be a microbial and non-microbial aetiology.
The principal difference between these species is that products that can cause poisoning of non-microbial nature are initially unsuitable for use, and if applied, they require more careful and proper preparation.
All non-microbial food poisoning is divided into products caused by products poisonous in nature and products poisonous under certain conditions.
Poisoning by products poisonous in nature
Such products are divided, in turn, into products of plant and animal origin.
Vegetable products are poisonous in nature
These poisonous products of plant origin are:
- poisonous mushrooms;
- poisonous wild plants;
- cultivated plants;
Non-microbial food poisoning by mushrooms is in the first place. It arises due to the fact that most of the so-called mushroom pickers, going to the forest, do not know at all which mushrooms are to be consumed.
It should be noted that there are conventionally poisonous mushrooms, for example, morels. They have not only a similar appearance with stitches, which are strictly forbidden to cook, but also a small amount of the same, poisonous helvellic acid. You can cook them and eat, but before that you should boil for 15-20 minutes. After such treatment, the mushrooms are suitable, but the broth merges, since it contains toxic acid.
The manifestations of fungal poisoning are very variable. It all depends on the type of fungus and the toxic substances contained in it. The most common phenomenon is gastroenteritis, which is accompanied by nausea, vomiting, weakness, stool disorder, etc. But there are also uncharacteristic symptoms for poisoning, for example, disorders of consciousness accompanied by delirium or fainting, as well as changes in the color of the skin, from pale to bright yellow.
A very large number of plants of the wild nature have poisonous substances. There are a lot of cases when people used to eat beautiful and juicy berries in the forest, and as a result they died almost instantly, without having had time to ask for help. They are poisonous due to the content of alkaloids, cyanide and oxalic acids, glycosides, saponins, etc.
Depending on the number of poisonous substances that have entered, the clinical picture of poisoning will also develop. Most often you can see a strong headache, nausea and vomiting, impaired consciousness, right up to his absence. As a rule, with untimely assistance, they lead to death.
On that they and cultural plants to be used by the population.
In themselves, they are suitable for food, but if improperly treated with pesticides, as well as in inappropriate storage, they can cause severe poisoning.
Weeds grow on the lands of agricultural lands, and in addition to harm from reducing the yield and quality of agricultural products, they are also dangerous because some of their species are poisonous.
The admixture of seeds of poisonous weeds in the harvested crop can cause poisoning of people and animals.
Even baked bread can be dangerous if, when harvesting, grains were collected along with grain of wheat, for example trihodessma gray or heliotrope of the pubescent fetus.
Products of animal origin are poisonous in nature
Such products include:
- caviar of marinka;
- Milk and caviar fish barbel;
- fish pufferfish;
- some shellfish;
- some other types of fish.
This fish lives mainly in the lakes of Central Asia. You can use it, but you must understand that you need some care when cutting.
Toxicologists do not recommend it to use and cook at home, without the skills in cooking.
Milk and shrimp roe
Mustache lives in large rivers, such as the Volga, the Dnieper and others. It can be cooked at home, but the only requirement is scrupulousness when cutting.
The belly should be torn carefully, and all the contents must be disposed of, down to the black film that covers the abdominal cavity, since it is also very poisonous.
Tetrodotoxin is found not only in the liver, game and skin of the puffer, but also in the muscles themselves. Many Asian chefs take responsibility and prepare this exotic dish, but it requires not only careful processing, but also a certain period of the year for catching. Therefore, it is better not to risk and eat fish from the family of puffers.
Some types of shellfish
It is known that mollusks pass water through themselves, thereby filtering it. To catch them for the purpose of consumption can not all year, because during hot flashes they get dinoflagellates, which secrete saksitoksin.
This toxin is invulnerable to any culinary treatment, especially since mollusks usually do not last long.
Symptomatics is characterized by local paralysis, literally 5-40 minutes after ingestion, for example, oysters, mussels and scallops, paralysis of the mouth and nasolabial triangle on the face may appear. Seeking help is immediately, since it costs the toxin to reach the respiratory center, it is immediately blocked and death occurs.
Poisoning by poisonous products under certain conditions
Products poisonous under certain conditions are also subdivided into groups of plant and animal origin.
Vegetable products are poisonous under certain conditions
To plant products poisonous under certain conditions are:
- bitter kernels of stone fruits;
- raw beans;
- sprouted potatoes.
Bitter kernels of stone fruits
It's no secret that bitter kernels, such as apricots or peaches, are very useful, because they contain trace elements, which are simply necessary for the normal functioning of the body. But very few people know that they are also conditionally poisonous. They contain the glycoside amygdalin.
In small amounts, it causes weakness and mild nausea, appearing after about 4-10 hours. A person who ate a small handful can not feel it. With moderate poisoning, the symptoms will become more severe and become more pronounced, vomiting, loose stools, and headache.
After consuming 250-300 gr of bitter almonds or ossicles, a severe degree of poisoning will occur, and the symptoms will be much more serious:
- cyanosis of the skin;
- convulsive syndrome;
- severe shortness of breath;
- keen sense of lack of air.
Death occurs as a result of blocking the respiratory center.
The most poisonous is white beans. The poisonous substances of this plant have not been sufficiently studied, but it is known that with careful cooking they decay and do not cause any harm to the body.
But with the use of raw beans or beans flour may appear vomiting, diarrhea and severe nausea. The only way to help - washing the stomach. Cases of deaths are unknown to date.
In the sprouted potato, the toxin glycoalkaloid solanin accumulates, which causes the strongest food poisoning.
There may be nausea, depression, vomiting, severe weakness and other symptoms of gastroenteritis. When consuming a large number of cases, lethal outcomes due to dehydration and heart failure are not excluded.
Products of animal origin are poisonous under certain conditions
Such products include:
- liver, caviar and milk of burbot, pike;
- honey collected from poisonous plants.
Liver, game, milk of fish
Although these fish species are attributed to the causative factors of non-microbial poisoning under certain conditions, but the toxicity of these fish is highly controversial, as in some cities the liver and caviar are consumed in large quantities.
It is known that poisonous properties are manifested only in those individuals who are considered old-fashioned or kept in inappropriate conditions. Freshly caught fish are almost never poisonous.
Honey from poisonous plants
Food poisoning of non-microbial nature can also occur with the use of everyone's favorite honey. The thing is that when collecting pollen, bees do not distinguish plants, collecting from all those caught. If there are a lot of poisonous plants in the area, then honey can not be used unequivocally.
Food poisoning of non-microbial origin can sometimes not be predicted. In order to protect themselves from them, you should carefully monitor what is consumed, that is, do not consume dubious foods, and at the first symptoms seek qualified medical help. Often spent time on self-treatment greatly reduces the possibilities of rational therapy.