Description of types of food poisoning of non-microbial origin
Surely every person at least once in his life faced such a problem as poisoning, which causes food intoxication and causes not only a lot of discomfort, but also health problems in general. Food poisoning can be microbial and non-microbial etiology.
The principal difference between these species is that products capable of causing non-microbial poisoning are inherently unsuitable for consumption, and if they are used, they require more thorough and proper preparation.
All non-microbial food poisoning is divided into those caused by products poisonous in nature and products poisonous under certain conditions.
Poisoning food poisonous in nature
Such products are divided, in turn, into products of plant and animal origin.
Vegetable products are poisonous in nature.
These toxic products of plant origin include:
- poisonous mushrooms;
- poisonous wild plants;
- cultivated plants;
Non-microbial food poisoning mushrooms are in the first place. It arises due to the fact that most of the so-called mushroom pickers, going to the forest, do not know at all which mushrooms are to be consumed.
It is worth noting that there are conditionally poisonous mushrooms, for example, morels. They have not only a similar appearance with the lines, which are strictly forbidden to cook, but also a small amount of the same, poisonous gelwell acid. You can cook them and eat them, but before that you should boil them for 15–20 minutes. After this treatment, the mushrooms are suitable, but the broth is drained, as it contains poisonous acid.
Manifestations of mushroom poisoning are very variable. It all depends on the type of fungus and poisonous substances contained in it. Most often, there is the phenomenon of gastroenteritis, which is accompanied by nausea, vomiting, weakness, upset stool, etc. But there are also uncharacteristic symptoms of poisoning, such as impaired consciousness, accompanied by delusions or fainting, and skin discoloration from pale to bright yellow.
A very large number of wild plants have toxic substances. There are a lot of cases when people used to eat beautiful and juicy berries in the forest, and as a result they died almost instantly, without having had time to ask for help. They are poisonous due to the content of alkaloids, hydrocyanic and oxalic acids, glycosides, saponins, etc.
Depending on the amount of poisonous substances caught, the clinical picture of poisoning will also develop. Most often, you can observe a strong headache, nausea and vomiting, impaired consciousness, until its absence. As a rule, in case of untimely assistance, they lead to a fatal outcome.
They are cultivated plants for use by the population.
By themselves, they are suitable for food, but if improperly treated with pesticides, as well as inadequate storage, they can cause severe poisoning.
Weed plants grow on agricultural land, and in addition to harm from reducing the yield and quality of agricultural products, they are also dangerous because some of their species are poisonous.
Impurity of seeds of poisonous weeds in the harvested crop can cause poisoning of people and animals.
Even baked bread can be dangerous if, at harvest, together with wheat grains were collected grains, for example, trichodesma hoary or heliotrope of pubescent fruit.
Animal products are poisonous in nature.
These products include:
- marinka caviar;
- milk and caviar of barbel fish;
- puffer fish;
- some clams;
- some other types of fish.
This fish lives mainly in lakes of Central Asia. You can use it, but you need to understand that you need some caution when cutting.
Toxicologists do not recommend its use and cooking at home, not having the skills to prepare.
Milk and Caviar
Barbel dwells in major rivers such as the Volga, the Dnieper and others. It can be cooked at home, but the only requirement will be scrupulousness when cutting.
The belly should be ripped gently, and all contents must be disposed of, up to the black film that covers the abdominal cavity, as it is also very poisonous.
Tetrodotoxin is found not only in the liver, the game and the skin of the puffer fish, but also in the muscles themselves. Many Asian chefs take responsibility and prepare this exotic dish, but it requires not only careful processing, but also a certain period of the year for fishing. Therefore, it is better not to risk and eat fish of the puffer family.
Some species of mollusks
It is known that mollusks pass water through themselves, thereby filtering it. Catching them for consumption is not possible all year, because during hot flashes dinoflagellates that secrete saxitoxin fall into them.
This toxin is invulnerable to no cooking, especially since clams are usually cooked for a very short time.
Symptoms characteristic of local paralysis literally 5–40 minutes after eating, for example, oysters, mussels and scallops, paralysis of the mouth and nasolabial triangle on the face may appear. It is necessary to call for help immediately, as it is necessary for the toxin to reach the respiratory center, it is immediately blocked and death occurs.
Poisonous food poisoning under certain conditions
Products poisonous under certain conditions are also divided into groups of plant and animal origin.
Vegetable products are poisonous under certain conditions.
Plant products poisonous under certain conditions include:
- bitter kernels of stone fruits;
- raw beans;
- sprouted potatoes.
Bitter kernels of stone fruits
It is not a secret to anyone that the bitter kernels of seeds, for example, apricot or peach, are very useful, as they contain trace elements that are simply necessary for the normal functioning of the body. But few people know that they are also conditionally poisonous. They contain amygdalin glycoside.
In small quantities, it causes weakness and mild nausea, appearing in about 4–10 hours. A person who has eaten a small handful may not feel it. In case of moderate poisoning, the symptoms will somewhat worsen and become more pronounced, vomiting, diarrhea, and headache will appear.
After drinking 250–300 grams of bitter almond or pits, severe poisoning will occur, and the symptoms will be much more serious:
- cyanosis of the skin;
- convulsive syndrome;
- severe dyspnea;
- an acute sense of lack of air.
Death occurs as a result of blockage of the respiratory center.
The most poisonous is white beans. Poisonous substances of this plant are not yet sufficiently studied, but it is known that with careful cooking they decay and do not bear any harm to the body.
But when eating raw beans or bean flour, vomiting, diarrhea, and severe nausea can occur. The only means of assistance - washing the stomach. Cases of deaths are unknown today.
In the sprouted potato, the glycoalkaloid soloxin toxin is accumulated, which causes severe food poisoning.
Nausea, depression of consciousness, vomiting, pronounced weakness and other symptoms of gastroenteritis may occur. At the use of a large number cases of lethal outcomes as a result of dehydration and heart failure are not excluded.
Products of animal origin are poisonous under certain conditions.
These products include:
- liver, caviar and milk burbot, pike;
- honey collected from poisonous plants.
Liver, game, milt fish
Although these types of fish are attributed to the causal factors of non-microbial poisoning under certain conditions, the toxicity of these fish is highly controversial, since in some cities the liver and caviar are consumed in large quantities.
It is known that poisonous properties are manifested only in those individuals that are considered inveterate or are stored in inappropriate conditions. Freshly caught fish is almost never poisonous.
Honey from poisonous plants
Food poisoning of a non-microbial nature can also occur when people use their favorite honey. The thing is that when collecting pollen, the bees do not distinguish between plants, collecting from all those caught. If there are many poisonous plants in the district, then honey, definitely, cannot be used.
Food poisoning of non-microbial origin is sometimes impossible to predict. In order to defend against them, you should carefully monitor what is to be consumed, that is, not to consume questionable products, and at the first symptoms to seek qualified medical assistance. Often, the time spent on self-treatment greatly reduces the possibilities of rational therapy.