Measures to prevent botulism
Among the infectious diseases transmitted mainly by the food path, botulism is a big danger. Clostridium toxins, getting into the human body, cause serious damage to the nervous system, which is directly related to the high mortality from this disease.
Given the widespread prevalence of a toxicogenic rod in nature, it is necessary to know about measures to prevent botulism. Next, let's talk about what prevention methods are available, what everyone can do at home to avoid intoxication, if an infected product has been used.
Brief epidemiological information
The disease develops when toxins enter the body. It is with them associated clinical manifestations of the pathological process.
There are 7 types of toxicogenic rod - A, B, C, D, E, F and G. They differ according to the toxin they produce. For each type of clostridium, their presence in different products is characteristic. For example, type A is more common in vegetable, fruit products and is characterized by the most severe cynical symptoms in poisoning. And type E prevails in canned fish. Meat blanks usually like type B sticks. This plays a big role in the selection of the type of antitoxic serum in the treatment and prevention of botulism.
Disputes are produced by bacteria only in the absence of oxygen, so the danger is mainly preserved foods under sealed lids. The toxin is destroyed by boiling for 10-20 minutes. But the spores are stable - they are neutralized by boiling for 3-5 hours, but at 120 ° C they are destroyed in a few minutes.
Clostridia live in the intestines of warm-blooded animals, fish, and also in the soil. Infection of products occurs due to contamination by the ground or the movement of microorganisms from intestinal carriers. Based on this knowledge, it is now appropriate to say how to influence the spread of botulism.
Types of prevention of botulism
There are planned and emergency preventive measures. Planned prophylaxis in botulism includes compliance with the sanitary rules for the preparation of canned food and vaccination. Emergency prophylaxis is the administration of a specific serum. Let us dwell on each of them in more detail.
Routine prophylaxis of botulism
Planned prophylaxis of botulism everyone can do at home.
The first, from which you should start preparing home preparations, is cleaning the dirt and land of vegetables, mushrooms, berries. Meat and fish should also be washed thoroughly with running water. It is recommended to clean the vegetable products with a brush before cooking. The dishes for rolling are carefully sterilized.
To prevent the formation of toxins by chopsticks in the intestine, the following recommendations should be observed.
- When salting products, the salt concentration should be greater than 10%. That is, for 100 grams of vegetables or mushrooms it is necessary to take about 10 grams of salt.
- Jam should contain more than 50% of sugar, in these conditions, microbes can not produce toxins. Or 100 grams of berries or fruit should account for more than 50 grams of sugar.
- Increasing the acidity of products also blocks toxin formation. This is achievable due to the natural acidity of some berries and fruits. Meat products can be acidified with vinegar. It is recommended to keep it from 2% together with 10% salt.
- You can not conserve spoiled food, as a favorite breeding ground for microorganisms where decay and decomposition is taking place.
A few more rules:
- ready-made canned food should not be bought on the market, use only factory-tested blanks for food;
- the contents of the blown cans are sent to the trashcan;
- if the type of products has a clarified appearance, an unpleasant smell or a bitter taste - it is better not to risk your health and send them to the same address;
- in case of suspicion of botulism unchanged externally, they should be boiled for 10-20 minutes, cut into small pieces;
- the prevention of botulism is also in the use of food in blanks under capron lids, which completely excludes the onset of intoxication, since there is access to oxygen and toxins in such conditions are not produced.
Specific prophylaxis of botulism includes: vaccination and the introduction of a special serum.
The vaccine against botulism is rarely used. It creates temporary immunity, requires reintroduction and is suitable only for people working in the zone of increased risk of infection with botulism.
In the United States in 2009, a vaccine was created against one type of neurotoxin, which is applied once by injecting into the nasal passages. However, it is useless for other types of toxicogenic rod. The work of scientists in this field is still ongoing.
If there is a risk or botulism has occurred, a measure of prevention of a specific nature will be the administration of an antitoxic serum. It is obtained by immunizing horses with known toxins of botulism. It is monovalent, that is, containing antibodies against one toxin and polyvalent - against several or all toxins. Serum is used for preventive and curative purposes.
Prevention of antitoxic serum is carried out by people who ate the same food as those who fell ill. In this case, use a single intramuscular injection in accordance with the instructions under the supervision of a physician. Before the introduction, a sample is made to determine the body's response to the foreign protein. Its use is contraindicated with a prophylactic goal with a positive intradermal test in connection with the risk of developing a life-threatening allergic reaction. And also if there were once allergic complications after the administration of such drugs.
Knowledge about the measures to prevent botulism are necessary for every housewife! Compliance with the technology of cleaning products, sterilizing dishes, creating the necessary concentration of preserving substances, rules for the use of ready-made canned food are sufficient to prevent the disease. Thanks to the creators of a specific serum, infection can be avoided even with the occasional use of substandard products, but it is better to apply preventive measures in advance.