Antidote for the viper bite
The snakebites of the snake family are not so rare in places where they are common. On the territory of Russia there live the viper, the steppe viper and Pallasov the musculoskeletal. People snake bite solely for self-defense. Most often this happens when a person is in a hurry and does not look at his feet, stepping on a snake, or a viper does not have time to crawl away.
Viper venom has the ability to increase the permeability of the vessel wall (hemorrhages appear), causes blood clotting and necrosis of tissues in the bite zone. Deaths account for less than 1% of the number of bites and are mainly associated with untimely first aid or misuse of an antidote from a viper bite. It is dangerous, if a bite fell on the neck and head, young children, elderly people or patients with chronic diseases suffered.
Antidote against the viper bite should be administered by a doctor, he also prescribes symptomatic treatment depending on the degree of damage to the body.
What antidotes exist from the viper bite? Let's find out.
First aid for the victim
Before talking about antidotes, let's recall how to act in such cases, what needs to be done in the first place, because this is also very important.
- Immediately after the bite of the snake to lay the victim in a convenient place, the head should be below the body. You can not move independently so as not to accelerate the spread of poison.
- Before using the antidote against a viper, it is necessary to suck the poison from the wound formed at the site of the bite. If necessary, the victim himself can do this if the bite has come to an accessible place. Suck for 15-20 minutes, periodically spitting and rinsing the mouth with water. After that, the wound is treated with iodine or greenery.
- If the bite falls in the arm or leg, the limb is fixed in a semi-bent position so that it does not move. This will slow the spread of poison. The arm is tied to the trunk, the leg to the other leg. The limb should be slightly higher than the whole body.
- Give an abundant drink, preferably plain water. You can not give coffee or strong tea - they have an exciting effect, which in this case is undesirable. Also it is strictly forbidden to take alcohol when biting a viper.
The injured person should be taken to the nearest clinic as soon as possible. In areas where there are cases of bites of poisonous snakes, medical institutions are equipped with an antidote for the viper.
Antidote for the Viper
Antidote against the viper bite is a specific serum. It's called: "Serum against the poison of a viper ordinary . " It is produced in bio-factories, based on horse serum. Antibodies contained in it, neutralize the poison of the viper ordinary. The preparation is a clear liquid in a glass ampoule. The volume depends on the activity of the drug in each lot, but not more than 3 ml. There are also foreign analogues of the medicine.
There are several points to consider.
- The viper antidote will only help with the viper bite. It can not be used for patients affected by the attack of other snakes (gyurzy, ephah, cobra). Also bitten by a viper, you can not inject serums against the venom of other snakes. Earlier in the medical institutions used the drug "Antigurza", but it turned out to be inefficient and often led to various complications. In the absence of a specific antidote for a viper bite, it is better to manage symptomatic treatment than to administer an antidote designed to neutralize the venom of another species of snake.
- The introduction of serum can cause anaphylactic shock due to the individual intolerance of the foreign protein. Therefore, the drug is used fractional. Recall that this should deal with a doctor. Incorrect administration of an antidote with a viper bite can adversely affect the patient's condition. The antidote is administered subcutaneously, the first dose is 0.1 ml. If the reaction to the antitoxin is absent (there is no strong redness, spots at the site of injection), then after another 0.25 ml of serum is injected after 15-20 minutes. The remaining serum is administered after 15 minutes in the absence of adverse reactions. The total dose of the antidote is determined by the doctor, depending on the degree of development of the symptoms of the lesion, it can be from 1 to 5 ampoules. In case of severe intoxication, the serum is intravenously dripped in a 0.9% solution of sodium chloride.
- Store the drug in the refrigerator at a temperature of +2 to +8 degrees. This is feasible, for example, at the dacha. In the conditions of the campaign, you can use a thermos with ice. If the storage is incorrect, the effectiveness of the drug decreases, and if the condition is violated for a long time, the serum can deteriorate. In the ampoule, a cloud or sediment will appear. Such a drug can not be used, it will only bring harm.
Symptomatic treatment with a viper bite
There are times when an antidote is not available after a viper bite. Then you have to take measures to provide first aid and rely on symptomatic treatment.
In marching conditions, you can give the victim the following medicines.
- Abundant drink will help to cope with the detoxification of toxins and the excretion of their kidneys. In this case, water will work as a natural diuretic.
- Antihistamines (Suprastin, Dimedrol, Tavegil) should preferably be given before the introduction of serum, and necessarily in the absence of serum. Dose - 1-2 tablets regardless of the age of the victim.
- Aspirin 1-2 tablets. If there is no aspirin, then any other antipyretic.
- Place the bite with Novocain 0.5% solution from three points.
- Give any analgesic drug non-narcotic effect.
- With a sharp drop in blood pressure, use Dopamine, Heptamyl, Norexadrine, or their analogs.
- To drink a course of antibiotic of a wide spectrum of action.
The viper's bite can have long-term consequences in the form of a malfunction of the liver and kidneys. It should also be taken into account that usually the reaction to the poison develops 15-20 minutes after contact with the snake, but sometimes this period reaches 12 hours. 2-3 days after the treatment the edema at the site of the bite should fall, and the general well-being improve. It is recommended to consult a doctor in any case, since for the first time you may need hospitalization and intravenous administration of medicines.