Antidote to Viper Bite
The bites of snakes of the viper family are not uncommon in places where they are common. On the territory of Russia, the common viper, the steppe viper, and the Pallas moth. Snake people bite exclusively for self-defense. Most often this happens when a person is in a hurry and does not look at his feet, steps on a snake, or the viper does not have time to crawl away.
The poison of the viper has the ability to increase the permeability of the walls of blood vessels (hemorrhages appear), causes blood clotting and tissue necrosis in the bite zone. Deaths make up less than 1% of the number of people bitten and are mainly associated with untimely first aid or improper use of the antidote to the viper bite. It is dangerous if the bite fell on the neck and head, suffered small children, the elderly or patients with chronic diseases.
An antidote against the viper bite should be administered by a doctor, he will also prescribe a symptomatic treatment depending on the degree of damage to the body.
What are the antidotes to viper bite? Let's find out.
First aid to the victim
Before we talk about antidotes, let's remind how to act in such cases, what needs to be done first of all, because this is also very important.
- Immediately after a snake bite, lay the victim in a convenient place, the head should be below the body. You can not move independently, so as not to accelerate the spread of poison.
- Before using the antidote from the viper, it is necessary to suck the poison out of the wound formed at the site of the bite. If necessary, the victim himself can do it, if the bite came in an accessible place. Suction is sucked off for 15–20 minutes, periodically spitting and rinsing the mouth with water. After that, the wound is treated with iodine or brilliant green.
- If the bite is in the arm or leg, the limb is fixed in a half-bent position so that it does not move. This will slow the spread of poison. The hand is tied to the body, the leg - to the other leg. The limb should be slightly higher than the whole body.
- Give plenty of drink, better than just plain water. You can not give coffee or strong tea - they have a stimulating effect, which in this case is undesirable. It is also strictly forbidden to take alcohol when bitten by a viper.
The victim should be delivered as soon as possible to the nearest medical center. In areas where there are cases of poisonous snake bites, hospitals are provided with an antidote to the viper.
Antidote to the Viper
An antidote from a viper bite is a specific serum. She is called: "Serum against the poison of the adder ordinary . " It is produced on biofactories, on the basis of horse serum. The antibodies contained in it neutralize the venom of the adder. The drug is a clear liquid in a glass ampoule. The volume depends on the activity of the drug in each batch, but not more than 3 ml. There are also foreign analogues of the drug.
Take into account a few points.
- The antidote of the viper venom will only help if the viper bites. You can not use it for patients affected by the attack of other snakes (gurzy, efy, cobra). Also bitten by a viper it is impossible to enter serums against poison of other snakes. Earlier in the medical institutions used the drug "Antigurza", but this was ineffective and often led to various complications. In the absence of a specific antidote for the viper’s bite, it is better to do with symptomatic treatment than to administer an antidote designed to neutralize the venom of another snake.
- The introduction of serum can cause anaphylactic shock due to individual intolerance to foreign protein. Therefore, the drug is used fractional. Recall that this should deal with a doctor. Improper administration of an antidote with a viper bite can adversely affect the patient's condition. The antidote is administered subcutaneously, the first dose is 0.1 ml. If there is no reaction to antitoxin (there is no strong reddening, there is a spot at the injection site), then in another 15–20 minutes another 0.25 ml of serum is injected. The remaining serum is administered after 15 minutes in the absence of adverse reactions. The doctor determines the total dose of the antidote, depending on the degree of development of the symptoms of a lesion, it can be from 1 to 5 ampoules. In case of severe intoxication, the serum is administered intravenously in a 0.9% solution of sodium chloride.
- Store the drug should be in the refrigerator at a temperature of +2 to +8 degrees. This is doable, for example, in the country. In the conditions of a campaign it is possible to use a thermos with ice. If stored improperly, the effectiveness of the drug decreases, and if the conditions are not satisfactory for a long time, the serum may deteriorate. In the ampoule appears turbidity or sediment. This drug can not be used, it will only harm.
Symptomatic treatment of the viper bite
There are cases when the antidote is unavailable after a viper bite. Then you have to take measures to provide first aid and rely on symptomatic treatment.
In the field, you can give the victim the following medication.
- Drink plenty of fluids to help with the disposal of toxins and their excretion by the kidneys. In this case, the water will work as a natural diuretic.
- Antihistamines (Suprastin, Diphenhydramine, Tavegil) should be given prior to the administration of serum and always in case of its absence. Dose - 1-2 tablets regardless of the age of the victim.
- Aspirin 1-2 tablets. If there is no aspirin, then any other febrifuge.
- Place the bite off with Novocain 0.5% solution from three points.
- Give any anesthetic drug of non-narcotic action.
- With a sharp drop in blood pressure, apply Dopamine, Heptamil, Noreksadrin or their analogues.
- Spend a course of broad-spectrum antibiotic.
Viper bite can have long-term effects in the form of liver and kidney problems. It should also be borne in mind that usually the reaction to the poison develops 15–20 minutes after contact with the snake, but sometimes this period reaches 12 hours. 2-3 days after the relief, the edema at the site of the bite should subside, and the general state of health should improve. It is recommended to consult a doctor in any case, since for the first time hospitalization and intravenous administration of medicines may be necessary.