Cancer intoxication - a possible cause of death of cancer patients
At far advanced stages of oncological diseases there are signs of poisoning of the body - this is the so-called cancer intoxication.
Let's look at this article, what it is.
Briefly, it can be said that this is a complex of various symptoms caused by the progression of the oncological process and the treatment of cancer patients. And more details you will read below.
Causes of cancer intoxication
Cancer tumors grow very fast, consuming a large number of proteins, fats and sugars. In this case, the body is deprived of such important nutrients for it, and its depletion occurs. Against this background, the tumor, rapidly increasing in size, is poorly supplied with blood, as it does not have time to form a vascular network. Developing hypoxia (lack of oxygen), and cancer tissue begins to die. Decomposition products are highly toxic to the body.
The destruction of the tumor occurs and against the background of anti-cancer treatment - chemotherapy. Sometimes the decay process begins a day or more after a specific impact. The disintegration of the tumor can also provoke a refusal to eat, which is typical of patients suffering from oncological diseases. In this case, the tumor is deprived of nutrients, and its cells die. The products of its disintegration penetrate into the bloodstream. Further, they are carried throughout the body. There is his poisoning. The combination of metabolic disorders in the body with the ingress of toxic substances into the bloodstream determines the development of such a state as cancer intoxication.
When the tumor disintegrates, the following electrolyte and metabolic disturbances occur in the blood:
- an increase in the blood content of uric acid;
- increase in the content of potassium in the blood;
- an increase in the phosphate content of the blood;
- accumulation of lactic acid (lactacidosis);
- decrease in calcium in the blood.
Uric acid, potassium, phosphates fall into the blood from the destroyed cancer cells. The sedimentation of uric acid crystals in the renal tubule can result in acute kidney failure. The process aggravates dehydration and lactic acidosis. An increase in the level of phosphates in the blood is accompanied by a decrease in calcium. Such changes lead to an increase in nervous excitability and convulsions. Calcium phosphate, deposited in the kidneys, also provokes a violation of renal function. Excess potassium is dangerous for the probability of a malfunction in the heart (the rhythm is broken), and can end with death.
The metabolism products of a disintegrating tumor damage the membrane structures of cells (normal) of various organs. Oxidation of fats takes place. Are formed dangerous particles - free radicals. Due to this, patients with cancer have a tendency to hemolysis (destruction) of erythrocytes, and the level of hemoglobin decreases.
The rapid development of the clinic of cancer intoxication is influenced by:
- severity of the patient's condition;
- intensity of the process of destruction of the tumor;
- injuries during surgery;
- features of clinical manifestations of cancer;
- blood loss;
- adhesion of inflammation.
There are other factors that affect the speed of development of cancer intoxication, the symptoms of which will be discussed later.
Symptoms of cancer intoxication
Signs of intoxication in cancer are diverse and nonspecific.
Signs of asthenia
- marked general weakness;
- fast fatiguability;
- mental disorders: apathy, irritability, mental imbalance, depression, sleep disturbance and others.
- pallor of the skin;
- Skin is icteric (yellow);
- cyanosis (cyanotic shade of skin);
- mucous membranes and skin are dry;
- hyperhidrosis (increased sweating);
- weight loss, up to cachexia (marked exhaustion).
- lack of appetite;
- disturbance of stool (constipation).
There are other signs of intoxication of the body in cancer:
- prolonged fever;
- pain in the bones, joints and muscles;
- susceptibility to infections (against a background of reduced immunity);
- arrhythmia (cardiac rhythm failure);
- propensity to thrombosis.
Treatment of cancer intoxication
The most important thing that is necessary for a patient suffering from a neglected form of cancer is a full-fledged diet. Foods should be rich in fiber, vitamins, contain enough protein, carbohydrates and fats. It is necessary to observe the drinking regime. Such patients can and should use their favorite foods, with rare exceptions.
An emotional attitude is also important. People who have similar health problems should be surrounded by the care of close people.
The amount and intensity of physical activity depends on the patient's condition.
When cancer intoxication treatment involves the appointment of symptomatic drugs.
- Antiemetic drugs: Metoclopramide, Domperidone. If it is not possible to take the drug inside, injections are prescribed.
- Laxatives: Lactulose, Senna's preparations, Forlax, castor oil, Guttalax, vaseline oil. Bisacodyl can be taken in tablets or used candles. You can use candles containing glycerin.
- Enemas do with ineffectiveness of laxatives. In addition to mechanical cleansing of the intestine, enemas help to eliminate toxic substances and reduce intoxication.
- Sorbents (Polysorb, Enterosgel, Polyphepan, Activated Carbon).
- Iron preparations are prescribed for anemia: Sorbifer Durules, Maltofer, Ferrum Lek. If necessary, prescribe injectable forms of iron preparations or Erythropoietin.
- Anesthetics (NSAIDs). Some of them effectively reduce the temperature. This is Paracetamol, Nimesulide, Ibuprofen, Ketoprofen, etc.
- Antiarrhythmic drugs are prescribed by a doctor.
- Sedative (sedative) drugs: Diazepam, Aminazine or Haloperidol.
The presence of severe electrolyte disturbances is an indication for hemodialysis.
Treatment of carcinoma in Israel is the use of the newest methods of treatment of cancerous tumors of epithelium developed from tissues.
Prevention of intoxication of the body in cancer
It is rather difficult to deal with the prevention of cancer intoxication. It is necessary to regularly monitor the blood test: monitor the electrolyte content, liver and kidney function, monitor the hemoglobin level and the clotting capacity of the blood. Time to correct the violations found. Full nutrition, fluid intake in sufficient volume, timely evacuation of the intestines, monitoring of cardiac activity also help to slow the development of cancer intoxication. This is especially true for specific cancer therapy.
Cancer intoxication - the cause of death of cancer patients! Its complications are: kidney failure, developing very quickly, cardiac arrest, thromboembolism, infectious complications, including sepsis. Such patients die and from extreme exhaustion, when all organs simply cease to function.
Therefore, timely diagnosis of cancer intoxication, and correction of this condition helps to prolong human life.