Features of the development of rotavirus infection in children and adults
Rotavirus infection is a disease in which the phenomena of general intoxication and symptoms of damage to the digestive system come to the fore. The causative agent is an RNA-containing rotavirus, which is very contagious. Whole groups can hurt, especially children.
Since the problem is urgent, and many people have already experienced the effect of this insidious virus, let's talk in detail about what it is - a rotavirus infection. Let us examine the causes of the appearance of characteristic symptoms, how the toxic effect of rotavirus manifests itself and what needs to be done in such a situation.
Intoxication of the body with rotavirus infection
Like any infectious agent, rotavirus, in addition to specific symptoms, causes intoxication. With this, the disease begins.
Intoxication syndrome is characterized by:
- severe general weakness that appears suddenly;
- temperature increase from 37 to 39 ° C for 2–4 days;
- chills even without fever;
- pale skin;
- decreased appetite;
- sometimes dizziness;
- rarely fainting and significant pressure drop.
Causes of rotavirus infection
The distributor of rotavirus infection can only serve as a sick person, allocating a large number of viral particles with feces. If we talk about how many days a person is contagious with rotavirus infection, then on average this period is 5 to 7 days from the onset of symptoms.
The virus is transmitted in several ways:
- household contact, through household items and unwashed hands;
- alimentary, when consuming milk and products from it;
- water, if used infected water, including bottled;
- airborne transmission of the virus is possible.
The infection spreads at lightning speed to those around the patient. During outbreaks, up to 70% of the population that is immune is ill. The incidence prevails in the cold season, especially in the winter.
Rotavirus infects the mucous membrane of the small intestine, where it multiplies safely. Mature epithelial cells are killed and rejected. In their place appear young epithelial cells that are not able to properly perform their function. As a result, complex carbohydrates (disaccharides) and simple sugars are not absorbed. Disaccharidase develops, including lactase deficiency, due to the lack of appropriate enzymes.
Undigested substances accumulate in the colon, which is accompanied by an increase in osmotic pressure in its lumen. Violated the absorption of water and electrolytes. Watery diarrhea develops, which results in dehydration.
In addition, the virus itself produces enterotoxin, which disrupts the absorption of water in the intestine and causes secretory diarrhea. All this leads to the appearance of the corresponding symptoms of rotavirus infection in both adults and children.
Symptoms of rotavirus infection
The incubation period for rotavirus infection can range from 14–16 hours to a week, but usually 1–4 days. The disease begins acutely with symptoms of general intoxication, fever and signs of gastroenteritis. Perhaps the gradual development of the disease.
- Vomiting is a leading symptom. The number of attacks can be from two to 12 times per day or more. Lasts from days to three.
- Loose stools are repeated many times. By nature, it is watery, frothy, usually yellow and without pathological impurities.
- Pain in the upper abdomen is noted from the very beginning of the disease. They are moderate, rarely intense or cramping. Accompanied by rumbling.
Symptoms of damage to the digestive system persist for three to six days. In severe cases, dehydration develops.
Signs of rotavirus infection in children
It is important for any mother to know how long the rotavirus infection lasts in children, since during this period the baby needs special care and care. On average, children suffer as much as adults: 5-7 days. But a full recovery can take up to 10 days.
For a child, rotavirus is very dangerous. This is due to the fact that in childhood, especially in the first years of life, the immune system is imperfect. Symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea can lead to severe dehydration, severe complications and even death. If there are signs of rotavirus infection in children, treatment should begin immediately.
The following symptoms should be alarming:
- severe lethargy and drowsiness;
- dry lips and lack of saliva;
- crying without tears;
- loose dry skin;
- reducing the amount of urine excreted.
In this case, a doctor is urgently required.
Symptoms of gastroenteritis and intoxication are often accompanied by an ARVI clinic: nasal congestion, runny nose, cough, rarely conjunctivitis and otitis media.
Signs of rotavirus infection in adults
The signs of rotavirus infection in adults are the same, but the clinical manifestations are usually less pronounced. Symptoms of intoxication are mild. The temperature is often absent or rises just above 37 ° C. Vomiting may not be. Diarrhea is not so intense. Dehydration, as well as the development of other serious complications, is unlikely.
Symptoms of lesions of the upper respiratory tract almost never occur. Hospitalization is usually not required. With the observance of a certain regimen and therapeutic measures, recovery occurs within the usual time frame.
Life threatening conditions due to rotavirus infection develop only in severe gastroenteritis, accompanied by severe intoxication, repeated vomiting, and diarrhea more than 20 times a day. Due to pronounced dehydration, blood circulation in the heart, lungs and brain is disturbed. Perhaps the development of acute cardiovascular and renal failure.
In other cases, disaccharidase deficiency may occur from complications. Lactase deficiency is particularly relevant, which leads to milk intolerance. The balance of intestinal microflora may be disturbed.
Treatment of rotavirus infection in adults
Patients with severe and moderate forms of the disease are hospitalized!
To begin, let's decide what to treat rotavirus infection in adults.
Diet for rotavirus infection in adults
Proper nutrition plays a crucial role in the treatment of the disease. During treatment for rotavirus infection, you must follow a strict diet, which implies the following restrictions.
- Milk and its containing products are completely excluded.
- Carbohydrate intake is limited: vegetables, fruits, juices, legumes.
- Food should contain all necessary for normal life: proteins, fats, vitamins and trace elements.
- Food should be gentle.
- It is necessary to eat more often, but gradually.
What can you eat with a rotavirus infection in the acute period?
- Ripe bananas.
- Apple puree.
- Rice porridge on the water.
- White crackers.
- After 2 days you can pamper yourself with boiled meat: chicken, turkey, beef. It is better to cook steam cutlets and souffles.
- The diet can be varied with cereals, pasta and flour products.
Adherence to the diet after rotavirus infection is necessary for two or three weeks.
Medicines for rotavirus infection
Drug treatment helps to cope with intoxication and prevent dehydration.
- Antiviral agents. Perhaps the appointment of "Cycloferon", but only on the recommendation of a doctor. The drug is safe at any age. Human immunoglobulin can be used.
- Salt solutions, such as Regidron and its analogues, are used to reduce toxicity and dehydration.
- An important role in reducing the toxic effect of viruses is played by sorbents. "Smekta" is taken in a bag three times a day. Enterosgel should be used in a tablespoon, enough three doses per day. "Polysorb MP" use 1-2 tablespoons of a hill up to 4 times per day.
- Enzyme deficiency helps cope "Pancreatin", taken 2 tablets after meals.
- It is advisable to assign biologics containing bifidobacteria, for example, "Bifiform" is taken by capsule in the morning and evening.
How to treat rotavirus infection in children
Answering the question about how to treat rotavirus infection in children, it should be clarified that there are no features here. Drugs are used the same, but in other doses, which depend on the child's age.
If the baby is still breastfed, then there is a problem with nutrition. Many mothers with infants do not know how to feed a child with rotavirus infection. Lactase deficiency leads to intolerance to breast milk, and if you continue to breastfeed, the condition only worsens. Lactose-free mixtures that do not contain milk sugar come to the rescue. At the same time, you can save 1-2 breastfeeding.
Prevention of rotavirus infection
The disease often ends with full recovery without consequences. After that, an unstable immunity is formed that does not protect against reinfection.
- Vaccination. Created two approved vaccines. They contain a weakened virus. Taken inside.
- Thorough hand washing.
- Drinking boiled water.
To summarize, I would like to note that a large part of the population faces rotavirus without even realizing it. Suspicion usually arises in cases where the infection spreads as soon as possible to contact persons. Everyone can get sick, so knowing the characteristics of the disease and how to treat rotavirus infection will help in a difficult situation.