Features of the development of rotavirus infection in children and adults
Rotavirus infection - a disease in which the foreground are the phenomena of general intoxication and symptoms of damage to the digestive system. The causative agent is the RNA-containing rotavirus, which is highly contagious. Entire teams can be ill, especially children.
Since the problem is relevant, and many people have already experienced the effect of this insidious virus, let's talk in detail about what it is - rotavirus infection. We will analyze the causes of the appearance of characteristic symptoms, how the toxic effect of rotavirus manifests itself and what should be done in such a situation.
Intoxication of the body with rotavirus infection
Like any infectious agent, rotavirus, in addition to specific symptoms, causes intoxication. From this disease begins.
Intoxication syndrome is characterized by:
- pronounced general weakness, which appears suddenly;
- increase in temperature from 37 to 39 ° C for 2-4 days;
- chills, even without fever;
- pallor of the skin;
- decreased appetite;
- sometimes dizzy;
- seldom with fainting states and a significant drop in pressure.
The causes of rotavirus infection
Only a sick person who allocates a large number of viral particles with feces can serve as a distributor of rotavirus infection. If we talk about how many days a person is contagious with rotavirus infection, then on average this period is 5 to 7 days after the onset of symptoms.
The virus is transmitted in several ways:
- contact-household, through household items and unwashed hands;
- alimentary, with the use of milk and products from it;
- water, if you use infected water, including bottled water;
- it is possible to transmit the virus by airborne droplets.
The infection spreads lightning fast among the people surrounding the patient. During outbreaks up to 70% of the population, who lacks immunity, is ill. The incidence prevails in the cold season, especially in the winter.
Rotavirus affects the mucosa of the small intestine, where it multiplies successfully. Mature epithelial cells die and are rejected. In their place, young epithelial cells appear, which are not able to perform their function normally. As a result, complex carbohydrates (disaccharides) and simple sugars are not absorbed. Developed disaccharidized, including lactase deficiency, due to the lack of appropriate enzymes.
Undivided substances accumulate in the large intestine, which is accompanied by an increase in osmotic pressure in its lumen. Violated absorption of water and electrolytes. Develops watery diarrhea, the consequence of which is dehydration of the body.
In addition, the virus itself produces an enterotoxin that disrupts the absorption of water in the intestine and causes secretory diarrhea. All this leads to the appearance of the corresponding symptoms of rotavirus infection in both adults and children.
Symptoms of Rotavirus
The incubation period of rotavirus infection can be from 14-16 hours to a week, but more often 1-4 days. The disease begins acutely with the symptoms of general intoxication, fever and signs of gastroenteritis. Perhaps the gradual development of the disease.
- Vomiting is a leading symptom. The number of seizures can be from two to 12 times a day or more. It lasts from a day to three.
- The liquid stool is repeated many times. By nature it is watery, frothy, usually yellow in color and without pathological impurities.
- Pain in the upper abdomen is noted from the very beginning of the disease. They are mild, rarely intense or cramped. Accompanied by a rumbling.
Symptoms of digestive system damage last from three to six days. In severe cases, dehydration develops.
Signs of rotavirus infection in children
It is important for any mother to know how long the rotavirus infection in children lasts, because during this period the baby needs special care and care. On average, children suffer the same amount as adults: 5-7 days. But a full recovery can take up to 10 days.
For a child rotavirus is a great danger. This is due to the fact that in childhood, especially in the first years of life, the immune system is imperfect. Symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea can lead to severe dehydration, severe complications and even death. When there are signs of rotavirus infection in children, treatment should be started immediately.
Guards should be such symptoms:
- pronounced lethargy and drowsiness;
- dry lips and lack of saliva;
- crying without tears;
- flabby dry skin;
- decrease in the amount of excreted urine.
In this case, a doctor is urgently needed.
Symptoms of gastroenteritis and intoxication are often accompanied by an ARVI clinic: nasal congestion, runny nose, coughing, rarely conjunctivitis and otitis.
Signs of rotavirus infection in adults
The signs of rotavirus infection in adults are all the same, but the clinical manifestations are usually less pronounced. Symptoms of intoxication are moderate. The temperature is often absent or rises slightly above 37 ° C. Vomiting may not be. Diarrhea is not so intense. Dehydration, like the development of other serious complications, is unlikely.
Symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection are practically not met. Hospitalization, as a rule, is not required. If certain treatment regimens and treatment measures are observed, recovery will occur at regular intervals.
Life-threatening conditions due to rotavirus infection develop only with a severe form of gastroenteritis, accompanied by severe intoxication, repeated vomiting, diarrhea more than 20 times a day. Due to severe dehydration, blood circulation in the heart, lungs and brain is disrupted. Perhaps the development of acute cardiovascular and renal failure.
In other cases, from complications, disaccharidase insufficiency may occur. Lactase deficiency is especially important, which leads to milk intolerance. The balance of the intestinal microflora may be disturbed.
Treatment of rotavirus infection in adults
Patients with severe and moderate forms of the disease are hospitalized!
First, we determine what to treat rotavirus infection in adults.
Diet with rotavirus infection in adults
Proper nutrition plays an important role in the treatment of the disease. During treatment for rotavirus infection, you must adhere to a strict diet, which implies the following restrictions.
- Milk and products containing it are completely excluded.
- Limited intake of carbohydrates: vegetables, fruits, juices, legumes.
- Food should contain everything necessary for normal functioning: proteins, fats, vitamins and trace elements.
- Food should be gentle.
- Take food more often, but little by little.
What can be eaten with rotavirus infection in the acute period?
- Ripe bananas.
- Puree from apples.
- Rice porridge on the water.
- White crackers.
- After 2 days, you can be pampered with boiled meat: chicken, turkey, beef. It is better to cook steamed burgers and soufflé.
- The diet can be varied with the help of cereals, pasta and flour products.
Follow the diet after rotavirus infection for two or three weeks.
Medicines for rotavirus infection
Medical treatment helps to cope with intoxication and prevent dehydration.
- Antiviral drugs. Perhaps the appointment of "Cycloferon", but only on the advice of a doctor. The drug is safe at any age. Human immunoglobulin can be used.
- To reduce intoxication and dehydration, saline solutions such as "Regidron" and its analogs are used.
- Sorbents play an important role in reducing the toxic effect of viruses. "Smecta" is taken by the sachet three times a day. Enterosgel should be used on a tablespoon, enough three techniques per day. "Polysorb MP" is used for 1-2 tablespoons with a slide to 4 times a day.
- With the enzyme deficiency will help cope "Pancreatin", taken on 2 tablets after meals.
- It is expedient to prescribe biological preparations containing bifidobacteria, for example, "Bifiform" is taken by capsule in the morning and in the evening.
How to treat rotavirus infection in children
Answering the question about how to treat rotavirus infection in children, it should be clarified that there are no features here. Medications are used the same, but in other doses that depend on the child's age.
In the event that the child is still breastfed, there is a power problem. Many mothers with infants do not know what to feed a child with rotavirus infection. Lactase deficiency leads to intolerance to breast milk, and if you continue to feed naturally, the condition only worsens. To help come lactose-free mixtures that do not contain milk sugar. In this case, you can save 1-2 breastfeeding.
Prevention of rotavirus infection
The disease often ends with complete recovery without consequences. After this, unstable immunity is formed, which does not protect against re-infection.
- Vaccination. Two vaccines have been created that are approved for use. They contain a weakened virus. Accepted inside.
- Thorough washing of hands.
- The use of boiled water.
To summarize, I would like to note that most of the population faces rotavirus without even realizing it. Suspicion occurs usually in those cases when the infection is distributed among contact persons in the shortest possible time. Anyone can get sick, so knowing the characteristics of the disease and how to treat rotavirus infection will help in a difficult situation.