Cyanidic acid in ossicles
Many people like to split apricot kernels, and there are nice-looking kernels. However, not everyone knows what kind of danger lies in them, because it contains hydrocyanic acid.
What are the properties of hydrocyanic acid? What harm can it do to the body? How can this be avoided? The answers to these and other questions will be revealed below. And now about everything in order.
What is prussic acid
Cyanic acid and its compounds (cyanides) is a natural insecticide, that is, a substance that protects plants from pests. They are rich in plant life. They are found in fruits and even leaves of many plant species. Cyanic acid itself externally is a colorless liquid with the smell of bitter almonds, which can be felt at a small concentration. It has high volatility and low density, is a highly toxic substance.
Cyanidic acid in bones is a natural compound. It is in the composition of glycosides, which are low-toxic, while the integrity and dryness of the seeds are preserved. As soon as these conditions are violated, chemical reactions occur, leading to the release of cyanic acid, that is, a cyanide.
Under the influence of moisture, hydrocyanic acid forms in the bones of cherries, plums, apricots, peaches, mountain ash, cherries, apples, black elder, kernels of bitter almonds. All these plants belong to the family of Rosaceae. The latter is characterized by the presence of glycosides, capable of releasing hydrocyanic acid.
Separately, I must say about grapes. It belongs to the family of grape, and they do not inherently release the prussic acid in the bones. Therefore, grapes in the form of whole berries are used to make wine, which can not be done with the listed "dangerous" fruits.
The content of hydrocyanic acid in plants
What amounts of cyanide contains cyanide?
The specific gravity of amygdaline, from which the toxic substance is released in the purified seeds, is:
- bitter almonds - 2.5-3%;
- apricot - 1-1,8%;
- peach - 2-3%;
- plum - 0,96%;
- cherry - 0.82%;
- cherry - 0,8%;
- apple-tree - 0,6%.
Consequently, the lowest content of cyanide acid in apple bones, so the risk of getting poison from these fruits is 4-5 times less than from bitter almonds.
Lethal and toxic doses
An interesting fact is known: susceptibility to hydrocyanic acid is greater in man and warm-blooded animals. While cold-blooded animals are less sensitive to its effects - the presence of a small amount of cyanide compounds in food is rendered harmless naturally without the development of poisoning.
There is an opinion that this is due to chemical reactions with sulfur-containing substances. If you get into the body of the same seed of sour cherry cherries at a higher concentration than can neutralize the protective mechanisms of neutralization, there are signs of poisoning.
According to different data, a dose of poison can be lethal or capable of causing severe poisoning when eating 40 grams of bitter almonds, or 100 kernels of apricot kernels, or 50-60 grams of nuclei containing amygdalin. In recalculation for pure hydrocyanic acid, contained in the bones of apples and other fruits, the smallest lethal dose is less than 1 mg / kg.
It is also important to remember that the preparation of wine on fruits with bones creates a high risk of poisoning. But jam and compotes - no. If there is enough sugar in the latter, which is the antidote of hydrocyanic acid, there will be no poisoning.
Intoxication of the organism against hydrocyanic acid develops when its concentration in the blood reaches 0.24-0.97 mg / l.
Negative effect of hydrocyanic acid on the body
There is an inhibition of tissue respiration, which is caused in the body by hydrocyanic acid, which is formed in apricot bones. This process occurs in all tissues and leads to a deficiency of energy, which is detrimental to, first of all, the activity of the central nervous system, and especially the brain.
The nervous system is more sensitive to the lack of "nutrition", and as a result, the structure of nerve cells changes irreversibly. The development of starvation of nerve cells with a normal oxygen content in the blood, which is an important component of tissue respiration, plays a major role in the supply of energy molecules. The toxin prevents the inclusion of oxygen in the reaction of their formation, which leads to its accumulation in the blood. This mechanism is associated with a special appearance, died of poisoning: the scarlet color of the skin and mucous membranes is preserved, which indicates the absence of oxygen starvation.
The action of the poison leads to stimulation of the ejection of blood cells from the spleen, which is a consequence of the energy starvation of the brain. By results of researches such reaction occurs due to direct reflex influence on a spleen. In other words, the body thinks that energy deficiency is caused by a lack of oxygen and, by stimulating the release of its vectors, tries to solve the problem and restore homeostasis.
At the same time, other vital organs are still able to perform their functions. Those who died from hydrocyanic acid, which is formed in fruits, such as plums, have less changes in the heart, liver, kidneys, in contrast to the central nervous system. With prolonged action of the poison in the heart over time, too, there is oxygen deficiency due to the inhibition of enzyme systems. Similar changes occur in other organs.
Fabrics lose the ability to consume oxygen. Accumulation of the latter in the blood leads to a decrease in the arteriovenous difference, and then to its disappearance. At the same time venous blood during severe poisoning will look like an arterial one.
Cyanic acid refers to weak acids and, at the same time, is a reactogenic substance. There are quite a lot of compounds in the body with which it can react. But as the process of interaction is slow, and pathological changes due to intoxication develop faster, so the toxic substance does not have time to react. The poison actively affects the content of hydrogen ions and leads to a shift in the pH of the medium to the acid side and as a result, non-respiratory (metabolic) acidosis develops.
Now it is clear what is so dangerous cyanic acid and what pathological processes occur in poisoning.
What conclusions can be drawn? It is not necessary to eat kernels of fruits from the family rosaceous. Jam, compotes, wine must be prepared from pitted fruit. Or do not spare them sugar. The exception is wine: except for grapes, all other berries must be taken without seeds. Observance of simple rules will help to keep health to yourself and your family.