Solanin - poison from potatoes
There are many concerns about poisoning with solanine from potatoes, but at the same time, little information can be found on the network about this. There are conflicting opinions, for example, on the effectiveness of neutralizing the poison by heat treatment of potatoes. And some give recommendations on the toxin treatment forums.
Let's find out what a solanine is, are there any cases of poisoning in humans? What fruits contain it, what is the level of toxicity? We will also analyze ways to neutralize poison, symptoms of poisoning, treatment and prevention of poisoning. First, consider what solanine is.
What kind of poison is solanine
Solanine is a natural poison of plant origin. It consists of glucose and solanoidin. The structure of the substance is represented by crystals. It is practically insoluble in water, but it is well diluted with alcohol. Solanine is contained in the representatives of the family of the nightshade.
Solanine is found in all parts of the plant, least of all in root crops. It is found in potatoes, peel ripe eggplant, in unripe tomatoes. It contains very little toxin in ripe potatoes when properly stored for up to 3 months. After six months, the amount of solanine begins to increase in the tubers and more of it is found in the green germinated potatoes.
Is it possible to be poisoned by solanine?
Theoretically, the likelihood of solanine intoxication appears when eating boiled germinated potatoes with skin, green potato stones, unripe tomato, and unpeeled eggplants. But since practically no one does this, therefore, not a single case of poisoning with solanine from potatoes and other root crops has been recorded.
Poisoning by toxin from other sources, especially berries from potato tops, green-willow - more likely, this is due to the high concentration of poison in them.
Ripe potatoes contain only 0.05% solanine. But in the old, green, sprouted potatoes, its concentration increases markedly.
To earn a slight poisoning, it is enough to eat 20 mg of solanine contained in greened potatoes, especially in germinated potatoes.
Admission to the blood of 200-400 mg of poison leads to death. And since the absorption of the toxin is not completely, then in order to cause such a content of the toxin in the blood, even more solanine must enter the intestine. But to eat so much solanine is quite problematic.
Symptoms of Solanine poisoning
The mechanism of action of solanine is associated with a direct toxic effect on the tissue in direct contact with them - the digestive system will suffer first. The use of a toxic dose will manifest itself:
- loose stools;
- spastic abdominal pain;
- feeling of bitterness in the mouth;
- sore throat.
On average, 2 hours after the eaten stallion, the entry of solanine into the blood begins. Due to this, there are signs of toxic effects on the cardiovascular, nervous, respiratory, urinary system. There is difficulty in breathing, general weakness, lethargy, headaches, dizziness, decreased urination, a protein appears in the urine, part of which is hemoglobin.
With severe solanine poisoning, symptoms appear:
- lower blood pressure;
- interruptions in the work of the heart, followed by a slower rhythm
Under the action of poison, the red blood cells are destroyed, muscle twitching begins, which goes into convulsions. They are followed by paresis, paralysis. Death comes from the termination of the respiratory center.
First aid in case of poisoning with solanine is reduced to the release of the intestine from poison. For this purpose, the stomach is washed with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Then give activated carbon or other drugs from the group of sorbents. It is recommended to drink enveloping drinks: jelly, milk, egg white. They give laxatives, astringents (tannin, oak bark). All this is done at an early stage in case of suspected intoxication in the shortest possible time. Then you need to call the ambulance brigade.
In case of severe poisoning, treatment should be carried out in the hospital.
In this case, the hospital is making efforts to remove the poison from the intestines and blood by all available means. Gastric lavage is repeated, stimulation of diuresis is prescribed, solutions are injected intravenously, dropping, hemosorption is performed, if necessary hemodialysis. Symptomatic treatment aimed at maintaining normal breathing, heart and kidney function is prescribed. In severe patients, antibiotics are used to prevent infectious complications.
Prevention of solanine poisoning
Solanine during heat treatment is destroyed only after heating more than 250⁰ C. That is, boiling and even frying (the boiling point of oil does not exceed 180⁰ C) does not destroy the natural toxin. What to do?
- Germinated potatoes are not recommended.
- If green areas appear on the tubers, they should be cut along with the peel.
- It is important to be able to properly store potatoes. Before hibernation, the excavated crop is well dried and kept in a cellar, basement, or other place. It is important that there was a cool, dry, working ventilation - the tubers begin to deteriorate in heat and damp. When the conditions for germination are created, the amount of solanine in such root crops is greatly increased. Potatoes are stored in boxes with a height of 1.5 meters at a temperature of 2–3⁰ C, humidity not more than 90%.
- From solanine in eggplant free peeling of vegetables from the skin.
- Unripe tomatoes can only be used for pickling (acetic acid neutralizes poison).
Let's sum up
So, solanine is a complex vegetative poison contained in a family of nightshade. The toxin is resistant to temperature effects, therefore it is not destroyed by heat treatment of products at home. With the purpose of treatment now do not apply the toxin. Only 20 mg of poison is enough to cause symptoms of poisoning. Therefore, you should not listen to the advice of amateurs to be treated not traditionally and take it for the sake of imaginary recovery.
Intoxication often occurs not from vegetables, but by eating green berries or other parts of the plant, where the level of poison is high. Symptoms of poisoning develop gradually, due to the characteristics of absorption of solanine. Acid drinks neutralize the poison and to some extent a weak solution of potassium permanganate, which helps in the treatment of such poisonings. Otherwise, the treatment does not differ from the general algorithm of actions for intoxications.