What are sorbents and what are their types
When leaving for vacation abroad, gathering with your family or friends on a hike, or just temporarily moving to another city, you need to stock up on the necessary trifles. These are not sandwiches and warm clothes. These are medicines that can help in an emergency. And if many drugs appear in the first-aid kit from time to time as needed, then substances like activated carbon and Smecta are found in almost every one.
That these medicines help, everyone knows. But how they act and in which case it is necessary to give preference to this particular drug is a mystery to many. What are sorbents and how to take them in case of poisoning? This information should be in every person who cares about their health.
Types of sorbents
This extensive group of chemicals can be called vital tools, as they not only improve their well-being, but also save people from serious and severe illnesses. Sorbents are used in the chemical industry for the purification of petroleum products, in many chemical reactions in the production of synthetic substances. And in medicine, sorbents found their worthy place.
Sorbents, what is it? These are solid or liquid substances capable of absorbing or absorbing many chemical compounds from the environment. They belong to the drugs "different pharmacological groups with local antidote effect." They work directly inside the body, in the digestive system.
According to the classification of the sorbents are divided into the following types:
Separately, you can select natural healing substances and another group of drugs that are not included in the classification, but also have the ability to sorption - nonabsorbable antacids.
By their functions, these three groups of sorbents are similar to each other. But they differ in the mechanism of action.
Sorbents are used in case of poisoning with gases, liquids, and solid substances. All of them absorb harmful chemical compounds trapped in the human body. Sorbents, bind poisons by interacting with them or attracting them to their surface.
What are absorbents
Absorbents, what is it and how do they act? Such drugs are created artificially or have a natural origin. Absorbent absorbs harmful compounds with its entire mass. That is, there are capillaries on their surface, which, drawing in harmful substances, increase the area of the absorbent. They absorb or absorb harmful compounds in two main ways: by entering into chemical interaction with them and by physical means.
Most often, such substances are used in industry for the purification of natural sources from poisons and chemicals, gas mixtures are subjected to absorption. They are actively used where there is the likelihood of an oil spill. Absorbents are used more often in case of environmental poisoning. Such substances are used to disinfect wastewater in the household, neutralizing air in apartments and organizations.
Absorbents that are actively used:
- coconut sorbent;
- activated coconut charcoal;
- propylene carbonate;
Despite the more frequent use of absorbents in industry, they can also be found in the household:
- modern water filters with different levels of protection;
- air purifiers;
- apply at disinfection of the sewerage.
What are adsorbents?
Adsorbents, what is it? This type of sorbents is more often used in medicine. They absorb poison with their surface, binding in large quantities unwanted and harmful chemical compounds trapped in the human body. That is, poisons do not penetrate into the adsorbents, but are collected on their large specific surface.
Such drugs not only bind toxins, but with the timely introduction of slowing their absorption. Assign them not only in case of poisoning. The spectrum of action of these drugs is wide.
Adsorbents are prescribed for the development of dyspepsia - a violation of the activity of the stomach.
- Apply with food infection.
- With an overdose of hypnotic drugs, glycosides.
- Adsorbents are shown in case of poisoning with heavy metal salts, alkaloids.
- In some cases, representatives of this class are used in the exacerbation of chronic diseases of the digestive system.
It is the adsorbent preparations that are well known to everyone who has ever experienced unpleasant sensations associated with poisoning and the action of toxic substances at least once in their lives.
Medicinal products adsorbents include:
- activated carbon and its varieties;
- silica gels;
- White clay.
Adsorbents are the drugs of choice when providing emergency assistance to both yourself and loved ones. They are practically safe, they are not used only in cases of individual intolerance and in case of bleeding or aggravation of gastric ulcer.
Absorbent and adsorbent - what's the difference?
As already mentioned, absorbents absorb harmful compounds with their entire mass, while adsorbents make it their outer surface.
These two classes of compounds of natural or synthetic origin exist in a solid and gel state.
What are enterosorbents
Enterosorbents are drugs of different structures that bind harmful substances in the stomach and intestines, which came from the outside and formed inside the body. They act in different ways, they absorb poisons both with their surface and with their entire volume.
Like all previous representatives of enterosorbents are assigned when injected into the body of toxic substances. But not only them. Often used in the exacerbation of chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. This is a class of chemical compounds that are used to neutralize harmful compounds in the human body.
They act in all possible ways: they absorb toxins, bind them, interact with them. Enterosorbents are prescribed not only inside, but also for the treatment and disinfection of wounds.
Enterosorbents are used in the following pathologies.
- In acute intestinal infections.
- If an allergic reaction to drugs and food has developed.
- Enterosorbents are also effective in poisoning with heavy metal salts, alcohol.
- In the treatment of purulent wounds, trophic burns.
- If intoxication of the body has developed after the transfer of viral hepatitis, with liver failure.
- To prevent the development of chronic intoxication in chemical industry workers.
- With the development of intestinal dysbiosis.
This medication is a scheduled prescription. Enterosorbent preparations:
- Polysorb MP;
These are medicines that nature has invented and preparations that protect the mucous membrane of the digestive system from the destructive action of its juices. These are not the modern products described above, but natural sorbents that everyone uses every day, without thinking about the protective properties of such products.
Natural sorbents include the following products.
- Apples They are recommended to start giving children the first months of life, as they bind intestinal toxins. Natural fruits and vegetables rich in fiber are also included here.
- Rice decoction. Normalizes the digestive system.
- A decoction of flax seed protects the stomach.
- Natural sorbents are bran.
This group includes drugs that envelop the stomach - nonabsorbable antacids. They are not absorbed in the stomach, but protect the mucous membranes from irritation and bind excessive hydrochloric acid, which leads to inflammation. These are the following drugs:
Many people, without realizing it, use sorbents in all areas of their activities. Such drugs help digestion, purify the air and water, protect our body from toxic substances. But their main function is to help with poisoning. These compounds are available, practically safe and effective. Therefore, they help in the treatment of many conditions.