The word - alkaloids, causes some tension. No wonder, these are poisons. Although there is one feature - they will be poisons at a certain dose. All alkaloids have a complex structure, therefore, are very active. Thanks to the alkaloids in medicine, painkillers and drugs that arouse and inhibitory drugs have appeared.
Let us in this article reveal the secret of the mysterious strychnine - what it is, as a deadly enemy can be a reliable assistant and find out ways to provide first aid in case of poisoning with this alkaloid.
What is strychnine
Strychnine is an alkaloid contained in the seeds of the fruits of a tropical chilibuha tree. Also, this substance can be a medicine that returns a person to life or poison, causing a person to stop breathing and death.
Strychnine poisoning is a frequent occurrence in animals, as it is used as a special poison in the form of baits. All types of animals (especially dogs and cats) are highly sensitive to it. Accidentally can get into the food of man.
To have an idea how strychnine works, let's talk about dosages. If the dose is small, then it is used as a medicine. In this capacity, strychnine nitrate, dry chili-bichi extract and chili-bah tincture are used. Their therapeutic dose: from 0.0005 to 0.005 grams, which corresponds to 5-15 drops of tincture. The effect of their use is analeptic, that is, animating. These drugs are psychostimulants, they will tone all the systems in the body:
- make the stomach and intestines work faster;
- normalize digestion, by improving the work of the glands and eliminating fermentation processes;
- eliminate urinary incontinence in children by increasing the tone of the sphincter of the bladder;
- they will aggravate hearing, sense of smell, sight, especially color sensation;
- increase blood pressure, increase heart function, increase respiratory rate;
- help recover from chronic alcoholism, drug addiction;
- remove muscle weakness, paresis and paralysis;
- will help with impotence functional nature.
It should be remembered: strychnine can be poisoned when long-term therapeutic doses of a drug based on it are used. It is slowly eliminated from the body, accumulates and strychnine poisoning occurs.
Symptoms of strychnine poisoning
Strychnine is rapidly absorbed from the stomach, especially on an empty stomach. Within ten minutes, the person feels unwell. The abundant content of food in the stomach delays the absorption of approximately two hours. Children and people with pathology of the heart and kidneys are especially sensitive to strychnine - it is the most difficult to save them. Strychnine is excreted from the body by the kidneys, and very slowly over several days. This is dangerous in terms of cumulation (accumulation) and the development of symptoms of poisoning.
The toxic effect of strychnine starts from 0.005 to 0.05 grams. The toning and activating effect is so enhanced that the muscles lose their ability to relax, and chaotic contractions appear - convulsions.
Symptoms of strychnine poisoning in a person begin with pulling pain in all muscles. The skin perception becomes aggravated, a crawling sensation appears, small muscle twitches, numbness, the slightest sound, light - irritate. Chewing muscles are strongly strained, swallowing is difficult. There is a feeling of fear and hopelessness.
At the next stage, if the poison continues to be absorbed, twitches turn into common convulsions. Unable to relax the contracted muscles arch the body, the head is thrown back. The body takes the form of an arc that rests on the heels and the back of the head. Hands and feet become like "sticks". The jaws are compressed, the face is bluish and tense, the eyeballs are immobile, the veins of the neck are swollen, the temperature is elevated.
All this is accompanied by an unbearable feeling of fear and pain in the muscles. Then the attack ends, temporary relaxation arises, it does not last long - one minute, followed by a new attack. With an increase in the dose of absorption of poison, the intervals between attacks are shortened, salutary relaxation does not occur.
The third terminal stage occurs at a dose of strychnine in the blood of 0.05 grams and above. At the height of convulsions, the respiratory muscles stop contracting, the person is unable to inhale or exhale, the eyeballs become immobile, the pupils dilate, consciousness is disturbed, involuntary discharge of urine and feces occurs. Death comes from suffocation.
First aid for poisoning
If you suspect poisoning with strychnine, treatment should begin immediately. The count goes on for seconds. It is better to exercise excessive vigilance than to allow the poison to act on the brain.
Strychnine does not have an antidote, so all efforts should be directed at cleaning the stomach and intestines, reducing the poisoning effect by binding the poison with tannins. When strychnine poisoning first aid: induce vomiting or flush the stomach. But no later than two hours after the poisoning.
- The stomach is washed with a suspension of activated carbon. A gram of coal will bind a few hundred mg of strychnine. Crush the charcoal, 3-4 tablespoons diluted in a liter of water. You can wash the stomach with manganese at a dilution of 1: 1000, receiving a 0.1% solution of potassium permanganate. In order to reliably flush the stomach, it will take up to 10 liters of fluid.
- After washing inside give tannins. For strychnine, the antidote will be an insoluble 0.2% solution of tannin - 200 ml given in 2–3 doses, every 5–10 minutes. A solution of tannin will translate strychnine into an insoluble compound and delay absorption. Also sorbents and laxative are fed to the washing probe. If there is no tannin, give what is available at home from sorbents: enterosgel, mucous broths (flaxseed), kissel, vegetable oil, jelly, strong tea (there is tannin in it). It is not recommended to give alcoholic or sour drinks along with tannin.
- The third step - you should again rinse the stomach, remove the formed compounds of tannin with poison, otherwise it will again disintegrate and be absorbed.
If more than 2 hours have passed since the poisoning, then washing is contraindicated. The state of the body is in extreme tone, so the slightest irritant will cause seizures. The patient is placed in a dark room, noise is excluded.
Let the victim breathe ether, chloroform, or amyl nitrite every 5 minutes until the convulsions calm down.
In the treatment of strychnine poisoning, curative agents (muscle relaxants) are widely used, which can greatly relax the skeletal muscles. These include:
- "Ditilin" - 5 ml of 2% solution;
- "Tubocurarin" - 0.5 mg per kg of body weight;
- For urgent withdrawal of convulsions, “Diplacin” is administered - up to 3 ml of 2% solution.
Given the severity of the condition in case of poisoning, it is better to immediately call an ambulance. In the hospital there is an opportunity to rinse the stomach and intestines in anesthesia and to carry out a number of measures in the fight against complications. In addition, medications to help with strychnine poisoning are not sold over the counter in pharmacies. In the home first aid kit for such cases should be potassium permanganate, tannin and activated charcoal.
It is not easy to poison strychnine in good faith, its bitter taste causes vomiting, it’s not for nothing that poisonous chili-bah seeds are called emetic nuts. In case of strychnine poisoning, symptoms similar to those of other alkaloids are observed, they require immediate treatment, up to resuscitation, including heart massage.