The word - alkaloids, causes some tension. No wonder, it's poisons. Although there is one feature - poisons they will be at a certain dose. All alkaloids have a complex structure, so they are very active. Thanks to alkaloids in medicine, there appeared painkillers and drugs, exciting and inhibiting agents.
Let us in this article reveal the secret of the mysterious strychnine - what is it like a mortal enemy can be a reliable helper and find out how to provide first aid for poisoning with this alkaloid.
What is strychnine
Strychnine is an alkaloid found in the seeds of the fruits of the tropical tree of the chilibu. Also, this substance can be a medicine that brings a person back to life or a poison that causes a person to stop breathing and die.
Strychnine poisoning is a frequent phenomenon in animals, as it is used as a special poisonous substance in the form of baits. Highly sensitive to it are all kinds of animals (especially dogs and cats). Accidentally can get into human food.
To have an idea of how strychnine works, let's talk about dosages. If the dose is small, then it is used as a medicine. In this capacity are nitric acid strychnine, chilibuha extract dry and tincture of chiliboux. Their therapeutic doses: from 0.0005 to 0.005 grams, which corresponds to 5-15 drops of tincture. The effect of their application is analeptic, that is, animating. These drugs are psychostimulants, they will tone all systems in the body:
- make the stomach and intestines faster to work;
- normalize digestion, by improving the work of glands and eliminating fermentation processes;
- eliminate urinary incontinence in children due to an increase in the tone of the sphincter of the bladder;
- sharpen hearing, smell, sight, especially color perception;
- increase the pressure, strengthen the work of the heart, increase the frequency of breathing;
- will help to recover with chronic alcoholism, drug addiction;
- muscle weakness, paresis and paralysis;
- will help with impotence of a functional nature.
It should be remembered: strychnine can be poisoned when long-term therapeutic doses of the drug are used on its basis. It is slowly excreted from the body, accumulated and strychnine poisoning occurs.
Symptoms of strychnine poisoning
Strychnine is rapidly absorbed from the stomach, especially on an empty stomach. Within ten minutes a person feels unwell. The abundant food in the stomach delays absorption about an hour or two. Especially sensitive to strychnine are children and people with the pathology of the heart, kidneys - they are the hardest to save. Strychnine is excreted from the body by the kidneys, and very slowly for several days. This presents a danger in terms of cumulation (accumulation) and development of symptoms of poisoning.
The toxicity of strychnine begins at 0.005 to 0.05 grams. Toning and activating action is so intensified that muscles lose the ability to relax, chaotic contractions appear - convulsions.
Symptoms of strychnine poisoning in a person begin with traumatic pain in all muscles. Skin perception is aggravated, there is a feeling of creeping crawling, there are small muscle twitchings, numbness, the slightest sound, light - annoying. Strongly tensing chewing muscles, swallowing is difficult. There is a feeling of fear and despair.
At the next stage, if the poison continues to be absorbed, the twitching turns into a common convulsion. Unable to relax the contracted muscles bend the body, the head throws back. The body takes the form of an arch that rests on the heels and the back of the head. Hands and feet become like "sticks". The jaws are compressed, the face is cyanotic and tense, the eyeballs are immovable, the veins of the neck are swollen, the temperature is raised.
All this is accompanied by an unbearable feeling of fear and pain in the muscles. Then the attack ends, there is a temporary relaxation, it lasts not for long - one minute, followed by a new attack. With an increase in the dose of poison absorption, the intervals between attacks are shortened, there is no saving relaxation.
The third terminal stage occurs with a dose of strychnine in the blood from 0.05 grams and above. At the height of the cramps, the respiratory muscles cease to contract, the person is unable to breathe or exhale, the eyeballs become immobile, the pupils dilate, consciousness is disturbed, involuntary discharge of urine and feces occurs. Death comes from suffocation.
First aid for poisoning
If suspected of strychnine poisoning, treatment should be started immediately. The account is for seconds. It is better to show excessive vigilance than to let the poison act on the brain.
Strychnine does not have an antidote, so all efforts should be directed to cleaning the stomach and intestines, reducing the poisoning effect by binding the poison with tannins. In case of strychnine poisoning, first aid: induce vomiting or rinse the stomach. But not later than two hours after poisoning.
- Stomach washed with a suspension of activated charcoal. A gram of coal will bind several hundred mg of strychnine. Coal crushed, obtained 3-4 tablespoons diluted in a liter of water. You can wash the stomach with manganese in a 1: 1000 dilution, obtaining 0.1% potassium permanganate solution. In order to reliably wash the stomach will need up to 10 liters of fluid.
- After washing inside, give tannins. For strychnine, the antidote is an insoluble 0.2% tannin solution - 200 ml give in 2-3 doses, every 5-10 minutes. A solution of tannin will transfer the strychnine into an insoluble compound and will delay absorption. Sorbents and laxative are also supplied to the washing probe. If there is no tannin, give what is available at home from sorbents: enterosgel, slimy broths (flaxseed), jelly, vegetable oil, jelly, strong tea (it has tannin). It is not recommended to give alcoholic or acidic drinks together with tannin.
- Step three - again, you should rinse the stomach, remove the formed tannin compounds with poison, otherwise it will again disintegrate and be absorbed.
If more than 2 hours have elapsed since the moment of poisoning, rinsing is contraindicated. The state of the body is in extreme tonus, so the slightest irritant will cause seizures. The patient is placed in a dark room, noise is excluded.
We give the victim to breathe ether, chloroform, or amyl nitrite every 5 minutes, until the cramps calm down.
In the treatment of strychnine poisoning curare-like remedies (muscle relaxants) are widely used that can greatly relax the skeletal musculature. These include:
- "Ditilin" - 5 ml of 2% solution;
- "Tubokurarin" - 0.5 mg per kg of body weight;
- for urgent withdrawal of seizures, Diplacin is administered - up to 3 ml of a 2% solution.
Given the severity of the condition in case of poisoning, it is better to immediately call an ambulance. In a hospital there is an opportunity in a state of anesthesia to rinse the stomach and intestines and take a number of measures in the fight against complications. In addition, drugs to help with strychnine poisoning are not sold in pharmacies without a prescription. In the home medicine cabinet for such cases should be manganese, tannin and activated carbon.
It is not easy to poison itself with strychnine, its bitter taste causes vomiting, - for good reason, the poisonous seeds of chilibu are called emetic nuts. When poisoning with strychnine symptoms similar to those of other alkaloids are observed, they require immediate treatment, including resuscitation, including cardiac massage.