Table of antidotes and antidotes
Poisons and antidotes to them
|Toxins and Poisons||Antidotes and antidotes||Application Description|
|Aniline||Methylene blue||1-2 milliliters of a 1% solution together with a 5% glucose solution intravenously, repeatedly.|
|Barium||Magnesium or sodium sulphate||Gastric lavage with 1% solution of magnesium sulphate.|
|Benzene||Sodium thiosulfate||Intravenous to 200 ml, drip.|
|White phosphorus||Sulphate copper||Appointed internally, at 0.3-0.5 grams, dissolved in half a glass of water. Gastric lavage with 0.2% solution.|
|Potassium dichromate||"Unitiol"||Intravenously injected 10 milliliters of a 5% solution.|
|DDT||Calcium Chloride, Calcium Gluconate|| These antidotes are administered by the intravenous method in 10 ml of 10% solution.
At the same time, gastric lavage and artificial diuresis are performed.
|Dichloroethane||"Acetylcysteine"||50 mg per pound of weight per day.|
|Dimethylmercury||"Unitiol"||"Unithiol" is administered intramuscularly or intravenously, 5 ml.|
|Sarin||Atropine||Usually - 1 ml of a 0.1% solution of atropine, intravenously or intramuscularly.|
|Zoocoumarin||"Ditsinon", "Vikasol"||The drugs are administered intramuscularly.|
|Soman||Atropine, Diazepam|| Atropine 1 ml of 0.1% solution, intravenously or intramuscularly.
Diazepam is administered in a standard way to relieve emotional anxiety.
|Mustard gas||There is no antidote||In case of contact with skin, treat it with an individual anti-chemical package.|
|Iodine||Sodium Thiosulfate||This antidote is used for intravenous drip injections, up to 300 ml of 30% solution.|
|Potassium permanganate (manganese)||Methylene blue||50 ml of a 1% solution of methylene blue are injected intravenously.|
|Lewisite||"Unithiol", dimercaptopropanol|| "Unithiol" is used intravenously or intramuscularly.
Dimercaptopropanol is used in oil solutions.
|Methyl alcohol||Ethanol||100 ml of 30% ethanol solution - inside, 50 ml - every two hours. Total - up to five times. When unconscious - 5% solution of ethyl alcohol, intravenously at the rate of 1 ml of alcohol per kilogram of body weight per day.|
|Copper sulfate||"Unitiol"||10 ml of 5% solution, then, after three hours, 5 ml.|
|Morphine||"Naloxone"||Naloxone is administered intramuscularly, intravenously or intranasally.|
|Arsenic, lead salts||Sodium Thiosulfate||The antidote is administered intravenously, 5-10 ml. The concentration of the drug - 30%.|
|Silver nitrate (lapis, silver nitrate)||Sodium chloride||2% sodium chloride solution is used for massive gastric lavage.|
|Phosphorus oxychloride||Atropine, isonitrosine|| Atropine is injected in 1 ml of 1% solution.
Isonitrosine is administered intravenously or intramuscularly.
|Oxides and other lead compounds||Calcium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid||Apply inside, on the capsule twice a day according to the standard scheme.|
|Mercury vapor||"Unithiol" or "Dimercaptopropanol"|| "Unithiol" is administered intravenously or intramuscularly in 5 ml.
“Dimercaptopropanol” is also administered subcutaneously or intravenously.
|Hydrogen sulphide||Amine nitrite, methylene blue||Artificial respiration, inhalation of amyl nitrite vapor, 50-100 ml of a 1% solution of methylene blue are injected intravenously.|
|Copper, lead salts||"Penicillamine"||Penicillamine is administered orally, one tablet once a day.|
|Hydrocyanic acid||"Sodium Thiosulfate"|| Intravenous administration of sodium thiosulfate, artificial induction of vomiting.
Give the patient to drink activated charcoal.
|Chromium compounds||"Unithiol", sodium thiosulfate|| Sodium thiosulfate is administered intravenously, drip in the form of a 10% solution of 10–20 ml.
"Unithiol" 5% is administered once 10 ml, then 5 cm3 again after three hours.
|Tetanus toxin||Tetanus toxoid||Introduced subcutaneously, deeply. Single dose - 0.5 mg.|
|Strychnine||Does not have an antidote||Washing the stomach with a suspension of activated carbon. In the presence of seizures - intravenous 20 mg of diazepam.|
|Sulema||Composition Strzhevsky (solution of sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, caustic soda in a supersaturated solution of hydrogen sulfide)|| The Strizhevsky solution is introduced into the stomach after washing in an amount of 80-100 ml. If it is impossible to swallow the solution, it is introduced through a probe.
The patient should also be given to drink warm milk.
|Thallium||Prussian blue||The drug is administered orally.|
|Tetraethyl lead||"Antidot Strzhizhovskogo"|| The Strzyzhovsky solution washes the stomach, and this solution is injected inside.
Also administered intravenously glucose, B vitamins, magnesium sulfate. With collapse - heart remedies.
|Phenol||Sodium Thiosulfate||Intravenous, drip - 100 ml of 30% solution.|
|Formaldehyde (formalin)||Ammonium chloride|| Gastric lavage with ammonium chloride solution.
Sodium sulfate is also administered.
|Phosgene||There is no antidote||There is no specific treatment.|
|Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid)||There is no specific antidote.|| Fresh air, warm-water soda inhalations; inside codeine, dionin (of 0,015 g), calcium preparations, "Dimedrol". Soothing agents.
In severe cases, intravenous calcium chloride (10 ml of 10% solution). Heart remedies.
|Cyanic potassium||Methemoglobin formers (nitrogen oxides, nitroglycerin, amyl nitrite, methylene blue), amyl nitrite, sodium nitrite|| Amylnitrite drip on the fleece and give a sniff every 2 minutes.
Sodium nitrite is administered intravenously in the form of a 2% solution.
Methylene blue 1% solution on a 25% glucose solution intravenously.
|Chlorine||Oxygen, morphine, atropine|| The victim must first be removed from the affected area to clean air.
Under the skin - a solution of atropine (1 ml of 0.1% solution), 1 ml of 5% ephedrine solution, 1 ml of 1% morphine is injected.
|Chlorophos, thiophos||"Dipyroxime"||Initially, poisoning is injected intramuscularly with 1 ml of a 15% solution. In severe cases, the same dose is administered at intervals of 1–2 hours. In severe cases, the dose increases to 3-4 ml.|
|Ethyl mercurchloride||"Unitiol"||The drug is taken in the same way as in case of poisoning with other mercury compounds.|
|Ethyl alcohol||Atropine, caffeine|| 1 ml of a 0.1% solution of atropine subcutaneously.
Caffeine - 2 ml of 20% solution.
|Ethylene glycol||Gluconate or calcium chloride, ethanol|
A 10% solution of these compounds is administered intravenously in a dose of 10–20 ml.
Inside - 30 ml of 30% ethanol solution.
Antidotes for drug poisoning
|Medicine||Antidotes and antidotes||Application Description|
Enter 1-2 cm 3 per kilogram of body weight of 1% solution, intravenously, with 10% glucose solution.
In the absence of excitement - 1 cu. cm 1% solution, sc.
Bemegride is an antagonist of barbiturates. It is advisable to apply up to 10 cm 3 of a 0.5% solution, intravenously.
For respiratory disorders apply artificial respiration.
|Up to 5 ml of 1% protamine sulfate solution is injected intravenously.|
|Anexat (Flumazenil)||Flumazenil is an antagonist of drugs of the benzodiazepine group. Introduced intravenously at 0.2 mg. Total dose - 3-5 mg.|
|Pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6)|
Introduced intramuscularly to 20 mg per kilogram of weight.
|Insulin||Adrenaline, stress hormones||With coma - 1 ml of 0.1% solution of adrenaline.|
There is no specific antidote.
2-3 cm 3 of a 0.1% atropine solution are injected subcutaneously or intravenously.
Ascorbic acid, sodium bicarbonate
|40% glucose solution, 10 cc 5% ascorbic acid solution, 200 ml of 4% sodium bicarbonate solution is injected intravenously, drip.|
The antidotes of plant toxins and alkaloids
|Toxins and alkaloids||Antidotes and antidotes||Application Description|
|A mixture of glucose, Novocain||A mixture of 0.5 l of 5% glucose solution, 20-50 ml of 1% solution of novocaine is injected intravenously, drip.|
|Heart glycosides||"Digibaynd"||Introduced intravenously, drip. The amount of the drug is calculated depending on the amount of glycosides used.|
"Aminazin" - 2.5% solution 4-5 ml intramuscularly.
"Haloperidol" - 0.5% solution of 2-3 ml intramuscularly.
|Lily of the valley||Atropine||1 ml of a 0.1% solution subcutaneously.|
|Nicotine||A mixture of glucose, Novocain||A mixture of 0.5 l of 5% glucose solution, 20-50 ml of 1% solution of novocaine is injected intravenously, drip.|
|Quinine||Tannin||Washing the stomach with a solution of tannin, the use of activated carbon, laxative.|
Antidotes for mushroom poisoning
|Mushrooms and toxins||Antidotes and antidotes||Application Description|
|Physostigmine||Intravenously, 0.5–1 milligram.|
|Death cap||Atropine||Subcutaneously - 0.1% 1 ml of solution every hour until the symptoms of poisoning disappear. Saline - up to 1 liter per day, drip.|
|Hallucinogenic toxins||Diazepam||For 5–10 milligrams intravenously.|
(contained in the lines)
|Pyridoxine (vitamin B6)||Introduced intravenously at the rate of 25 mg per kilogram of body weight.|
|Muscarin (an alkaloid found in mushrooms)||Atropine||Introduced 1 cm 3 0.1% atropine subcutaneously or intramuscularly.|
|Amanita||Atropine||Subcutaneously - 0.1% 1 ml of solution every hour until the symptoms of poisoning disappear.|
|Orellanin (bitter in the spider web)||Atropine||The introduction of 1 cm 3 of 0.1% atropine under the skin or intramuscularly.|
Antidotes toxins of animal and bacterial origin
|Toxins and Poisons||Antidotes and antidotes||Application Description|
|There is no antidote|
|Snake bites||Heparin, antivenin|| Heparin - intravenously, 10,000 IU.
Antivenin - from 20 to 150 ml intravenously, depending on the severity of poisoning.
|Bee toxins or wasps||Adrenaline, Prednisolone, Methason|| Adrenaline is injected subcutaneously. You must also enter a solution of adrenaline.
The solution of metazone is administered drip intravenously.
Epinephrine can be replaced with ephedrine.
|Karakurt Toxin||Magnesium sulphate, calcium chloride, antivenin.|| Injected intravenously, re-solution of magnesium chloride (25%), as well as calcium chloride (10%).
Antivenin - 2.5 cm 3 intravenously or intramuscularly.
|Scorpion toxin||Atropine, ergotamine||0.5–1 cm 3 of a 0.1% atropine solution, or 0.5–1 cm 3 of a 0.05% ergotamine solution is injected subcutaneously.|