The liver in our body is the most amazing and unpretentious organ. It performs more than 400 different functions, while it is the main barrier between the blood coming from the intestine, and all other organs. Cells-hepatocytes process the incoming material, synthesize from it the substances necessary for the whole body, remove and neutralize poisons and toxins.
Having a huge ability to recover, the liver, nevertheless, is subject to the destructive effect of harmful substances if they come in quantities with which it is difficult to cope with. In this case, inflammation of the liver - hepatitis, and hepatocyte cells partially die and collapse. What is toxic hepatitis, what factors cause it and how is the disease treated?
What is toxic hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver occurs for various reasons: bacterial and viral infections, fungal diseases and parasitic infestations, exposure to toxic substances. If the destruction of the liver cells occurs under the influence of aggressive chemicals that enter the body from the outside, then this disease is called toxic hepatitis. What it is?
- Acute toxic hepatitis develops as a result of getting a small amount of potent poison or weak irritants, but in high concentrations. As a rule, toxins enter through the gastrointestinal tract, less often through the airways and skin.
- Chronic hepatitis occurs because of the constant exposure to small doses of toxin for a long time. Diseases related to hepatitis have a code for ICD-10 under the number K71 (toxic liver damage). Alcoholic liver disease is isolated into an independent group and has the code K70.
Can toxic hepatitis be infectious? No, this is an exclusively therapeutic disease caused by the influence of an external chemical factor on a certain person. Group disease occurs only if all patients are simultaneously exposed to toxins (food poisoning, industrial accidents).
The causes of toxic hepatitis
According to statistics, the most common cause of toxic hepatitis in Russia is alcohol abuse, as well as the subsequent uncontrolled intake of medications for lifting the hangover syndrome.
Medicinal toxic hepatitis develops as a result of a single dose of a large dose of drugs or long-term treatment, even under medical supervision. Among the most dangerous drugs for the liver are the following groups:
Separately, we can distinguish hepatitis after chemotherapy for cancer. Cytotoxic drugs used to suppress the growth of cancer cells have a negative effect on all organs and tissues, primarily on the liver. After chemotherapy, a blood test is required to monitor the state of biochemical processes in the liver. Depending on the results, a diet and restorative treatment is prescribed.
Another cause of toxic hepatitis are industrial poisons. This group of substances can poison the body both through the digestive tract, and by getting on the skin or inhaling the polluted air. The main hepatotoxic substances used in modern industry are:
- Pesticides, including insect repellent;
- chlorinated hydrocarbons (petroleum products);
Another large group of toxins that have a destructive effect on the liver are poisons of plant origin:
- death cap;
- the cross;
Poisoning by plant poisons usually occurs as a result of improper collection of fungi or self-treatment of grasses of unknown origin.
Symptoms of acute and chronic toxic hepatitis
Symptoms of toxic hepatitis will vary slightly depending on the nature of the disease. In acute course, the first signs appear usually in 2-4 days, less often in 12-24 hours (for example, poisoning with pale toadstool).
Acute toxic hepatitis is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- pain in the right hypochondrium;
- vomiting, lack of appetite, nausea;
- yellowing of the whites of the eyes;
- discolored feces;
- bleeding from the nose, gums, pinpoint hemorrhages on the skin;
- darkening of urine;
- sometimes nerve disorders due to toxins on the nervous system.
In the chronic course of the disease, symptoms can periodically appear and disappear:
- slight increase in body temperature (37.0-37.5 ° C);
- discomfort in the right hypochondrium;
- bloating, diarrhea;
- bitter taste in the mouth, nausea, vomiting;
- itching in the skin;
- increased fatigue.
The liver increases in size, blood analysis reveals an increase in bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase, the level of enzymes of AST and ALT changes. It is necessary to conduct additional studies to exclude other forms of hepatitis, especially infectious ones.
Treatment of toxic hepatitis
Treatment of toxic hepatitis consists in the rapid removal of poison from the body, in symptomatic therapy and in the creation of optimal conditions for liver regeneration. To do this, use substances-hepatoprotectors. As a rule, these are vitamins, enzymes and products of plant origin.
- Pharmacy hepatoprotectors: Liv 52, Essentiale, Heptral. These drugs contribute to the development of the necessary phospholipids, activate the synthesis of amino acids, have choleretic and anti-inflammatory effects. They are accepted by long courses from 1 to 6 months.
- Vitamins of group B and ascorbic acid.
- Means, increasing the allocation of bile - "Holensim", "Holosas".
Treatment of toxic hepatitis with folk remedies
Treatment of toxic hepatitis folk remedies can only be used under the supervision of a doctor. They help to relieve nausea and normalize the liver:
- juice from sauerkraut;
- infusion of mint;
- grapefruit juice;
- infusion of horseradish roots;
- a decoction of marigold;
- juice and pumpkin flesh.
The diet plays a huge role in the treatment of liver diseases. It is the main stimulus to regeneration, as it allows to eliminate the influence of unfavorable factors and create conditions for rapid recovery, providing the liver with all the necessary substances. Also, you should minimize the intake of all medications. There is a saying: "The best pill for the liver is the absence of any pill", and it is close to the truth!
What kind of diet should you follow with toxic liver hepatitis? Exclude all the heavy foods for digestion:
- fatty meat (pork, lamb, ducklings), lard;
- fatty fish;
- canned food;
- Smoked products;
- seasonings and sauces;
- baking and fresh bread;
- strong tea, coffee, cocoa;
- sparkling water;
- onion, garlic, radish, sorrel;
- confectionery, ice cream;
- fatty sorts of cheese and cottage cheese, sour cream, butter.
Categorically prohibited alcohol and nicotine!
You can not eat fat, spicy, fried. The food is cooked for a couple, baked or cooked.
The daily ration necessarily includes:
- dried bread;
- chicken meat, veal;
- lean varieties of fish;
- milk and fat-free cottage cheese;
- vegetables and fruits.
It is also useful to drink green tea, a decoction of dried fruits, there are figs and vegetables of green color.
Nutrition in toxic hepatitis should be carried out in small portions, 5-6 times a day. It is advisable to adhere to the principle of separate food: do not mix protein and carbohydrate food in one trick, and fruits are separate from everything.
In general, with a timely diagnosis and correct treatment, the prognosis is favorable. The liver has an exceptional ability to regenerate and easily recovers up to 75% of dead cells.
An unfavorable outcome can be as a result of acute damage to a large dose of poison and delayed medical care (for example, the poison of a pale toadstool causes the first signs of poisoning to appear after the liver has been exposed to it).
Chronic toxic hepatitis can be complicated by cirrhosis of the liver - replacement of functional cells-hepatocytes with scar tissue. As a rule, this occurs as a result of the permanent effect of toxins on the liver, when the poison does not allow the cells to recover normally, for example, when drinking alcohol.
Toxic hepatitis is an infectious liver disease that occurs as a result of the poisoning of the body with chemicals: alcohol, drugs, plant toxins and industrial toxins. The disease is accompanied by pain in the right upper quadrant, nausea, digestive disorders, fever. In the treatment of toxic hepatitis it is important to exclude the effect of the destructive factor, quickly remove the poison from the body and create favorable conditions for the restoration of the liver. To do this, take drugs-hepatoprotectors and observe a sparing diet.