The liver in our body is the most amazing and unpretentious organ. It performs over 400 different functions, while being the main barrier between the blood coming from the intestines and all other organs. Hepatocyte cells process the incoming material, synthesize substances necessary for the whole organism from it, remove and detoxify poisons and toxins.
Having a huge ability to recover, the liver, however, is subject to the ravages of harmful substances if they come in quantities that it is difficult for it to cope with. At the same time, liver inflammation develops - hepatitis, and hepatocyte cells partially die and collapse. What is toxic hepatitis, what factors cause it and how is this disease treated?
What is toxic hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver occurs for various reasons: bacterial and viral infections, fungal diseases and parasitic invasions, exposure to toxic substances. If the destruction of liver cells occurs under the influence of aggressive chemicals entering the body from the outside, then this disease is called toxic hepatitis. What it is?
- Acute toxic hepatitis develops as a result of ingestion of a small amount of potent poison or mild irritants, but in high concentrations. As a rule, toxins enter through the gastrointestinal tract, less often through the respiratory tract and skin.
- Chronic hepatitis occurs due to constant exposure to low doses of the toxin for a long time. Diseases related to hepatitis are ICD-10 code number K71 (toxic liver damage). Alcoholic liver disease is divided into an independent group and has the code K70.
Can toxic hepatitis be contagious? No, it is an exclusively therapeutic disease caused by the influence of an external chemical factor on a specific person. Group disease occurs only if all patients are simultaneously exposed to the toxin (food poisoning, accidents at work).
Causes of toxic hepatitis
According to statistics, the most common cause of toxic hepatitis in Russia is alcohol abuse, as well as the subsequent uncontrolled use of drugs to relieve hangover.
Drug toxic hepatitis develops as a result of a single dose of a large dose of drugs or long-term treatment, even under medical supervision. The following groups are the most dangerous for the liver of drugs:
Separately, you can select hepatitis after chemotherapy for cancer. Cytotoxic drugs used to suppress the growth of cancer cells have a negative effect on all organs and tissues, primarily on the liver. After chemotherapy, a blood test is required to monitor the state of biochemical processes in the liver. Depending on the results, diet and rehabilitation treatment is prescribed.
Another cause of toxic hepatitis is industrial poisons. This group of substances can poison the body through the digestive tract, as well as by contact with the skin or inhalation of polluted air. The main hepatotoxic substances used in modern industry are:
- pesticides, including insecticides;
- chlorinated hydrocarbons (petroleum products);
Another extensive group of toxins that have a damaging effect on the liver is poisons of plant origin:
- death cap;
Poisoning with plant poisons usually occurs as a result of improper picking of mushrooms or self-healing by collecting herbs of unknown origin.
Symptoms of acute and chronic toxic hepatitis
Symptoms of toxic hepatitis will vary slightly depending on the nature of the disease. In acute cases, the first signs usually appear after 2–4 days, less often after 12–24 hours (for example, in case of poisoning by a toadstool).
Acute toxic hepatitis is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- pain in the right hypochondrium;
- vomiting, lack of appetite, nausea;
- the yellowness of the whites of the eyes;
- bleached feces;
- bleeding from the nose, gums, point hemorrhages on the skin;
- dark urine;
- sometimes nerve disorders as a result of exposure to toxins on the nervous system.
In the chronic course of the disease, symptoms may periodically appear and disappear:
- a slight increase in body temperature (37.0–37.5 ° C);
- discomfort in the right hypochondrium area;
- bloating, diarrhea;
- bitterness in mouth, nausea, vomiting;
- itching in the skin;
- increased fatigue.
The liver increases in size, an increase in bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase is detected in blood tests, and the level of AST and ALT enzymes changes. Additional studies are needed to rule out other forms of hepatitis, primarily infectious.
Treatment of toxic hepatitis
Treatment of toxic hepatitis consists in removing the poison from the body as quickly as possible, in symptomatic therapy and creating optimal conditions for the regeneration of the liver. To do this, use substances-hepatoprotectors. As a rule, these are vitamins, enzymes and herbal products.
- Pharmacy hepatoprotectors: "Liv 52", "Essentiale", "Geptral". These drugs contribute to the development of the necessary phospholipids, activate the synthesis of amino acids, have a choleretic and anti-inflammatory effect. Take them in long courses from 1 to 6 months.
- Vitamins of group B and ascorbic acid.
- Means that increase the secretion of bile - "Holensim", "Holosas".
Treatment of toxic hepatitis folk remedies
Treatment of toxic hepatitis folk remedies can only be used under the supervision of a physician. They help relieve nausea and normalize liver function:
- sauerkraut juice;
- mint infusion;
- grapefruit juice;
- infusion of horseradish roots;
- calendula decoction;
- pumpkin juice and pulp.
Great importance in the treatment of liver diseases is diet. It is the main stimulus for regeneration, because it allows you to eliminate the effects of adverse factors and create conditions for rapid recovery, providing the liver with all the necessary substances. You should also minimize the intake of all drugs. There is a saying: “The best pill for the liver is the absence of any pill,” and it is close to the truth!
What kind of diet for toxic hepatitis should be followed? Exclude all products, difficult for digestion:
- fatty meat (pork, lamb, duck), lard;
- fatty fish;
- canned food;
- smoked meat;
- seasonings and sauces;
- pastries and fresh bread;
- strong tea, coffee, cocoa;
- sparkling water;
- onion, garlic, radish, sorrel;
- confectionery, ice cream;
- fatty cheeses and cottage cheese, sour cream, butter.
Strongly prohibited alcohol and nicotine!
You can not eat fatty, spicy, fried. Food is steamed, baked or boiled.
In the daily diet must include:
- dried bread;
- chicken, veal;
- lean varieties of fish;
- milk and low fat cottage cheese;
- vegetables and fruits.
It is also useful to drink green tea, a decoction of dried fruit, there are figs and green vegetables.
Food for toxic hepatitis should be carried out in small portions, 5-6 times a day. It is advisable to adhere to the principle of separate nutrition: do not mix protein and carbohydrate foods in one step, and the fruit is separate from everything.
In general, with timely diagnosis and proper treatment, the prognosis is favorable. The liver has an exceptional ability to regenerate and easily recovers up to 75% of dead cells.
An unfavorable outcome may be the result of an acute defeat with a large dose of poison and delayed medical care (for example, the poison of the toadstool causes the first signs of poisoning to appear after the liver has been exposed to it).
Chronic toxic hepatitis may be complicated by cirrhosis of the liver - the replacement of functional hepatocyte cells with scar tissue. As a rule, this occurs as a result of constant exposure to toxins on the liver, when the poison does not allow the cells to recover normally, for example, when drinking alcohol.
Toxic hepatitis is a non-contagious liver disease that occurs as a result of poisoning the body with chemicals: alcohol, drugs, plant poisons, and industrial toxins. The disease is accompanied by pain in the right hypochondrium, nausea, indigestion, fever. In the treatment of toxic hepatitis, it is important to eliminate the impact of the destructive factor, quickly remove the poison from the body and create favorable conditions for the recovery of the liver. To do this, take drugs, hepatoprotectors and follow a sparing diet.